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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., namely scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. It briefly describes the operating principles, instrumentation which includes energy dispersive X-ray detectors, spatial resolution, typical use of the techniques, elemental analysis detection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006650
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... descriptions and line narrowing and spectral resolution and describing the impact of magnetic field on nuclear spins and the factors determining resonance frequency. This is followed by a description of various systems and equipment necessary for NMR spectroscopy. A discussion on general sampling for solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006660
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... microscope and describes transmission Kikuchi diffraction. It begins with a discussion on the origins of EBSD and the collection of EBSD patterns. This is followed by sections providing information on EBSD spatial resolution and system operation of EBSD. Various factors pertinent to perform an EBSD...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) approach enables essentially simultaneous examination of microstructural features through imaging from lower magnifications to atomic resolution and the acquisition of chemical and crystallographic information from small regions of the thin...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... time-of-flight SIMS are covered. Instrumental features required for secondary ion imaging are presented and the differences between quadrupole and high-resolution magnetic mass filters are described. The article also reviews the optimum method for analysis of nonmetallic samples and high detection...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... classified as contact thermographic methods using cholesteric liquid crystals, thermally quenched phosphors, and heat-sensitive paints, and noncontact techniques using hand-held infrared scanners, high-resolution infrared imaging systems, and thermal wave interferometer systems. Contact thermometric...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on the capabilities, typical uses, spatial resolution, elemental analysis detection threshold and precision, limitations, sample requirements, and operating principles of the scanning auger microprobe. electron probe microanalysis scanning auger microprobe scanning electron microscopy...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... morphology evolution, solute transport, and various process phenomena at spatiotemporal resolutions. It discusses the three viable imaging techniques made available by synchrotron radiation for the real-time investigation of solidification microstructures in alloys. These include two-dimensional X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... needle in a direction parallel to the incident radiation. Therefore, the thickness of the conversion screen does not cause appreciable deterioration in the spatial resolution of the system. Fig. 3 Schematic of a typical radioscopic system using an x-ray image intensifier The light from the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... interest. Lateral resolution of the analytical technique must also be considered in most cases. This article describes the physical basis and results obtained for common characterization methods used to evaluate the physical morphology and chemical properties of component surfaces for medical devices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... systems with higher resolution, and the ability to operate within the manufacturing environment. The U.S. military services have actively driven the development of dedicated industrial CT systems. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, several programs were initiated with specific inspection objectives. Early...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... scanning tunneling microscopy) and stereochemistry (infrared and Raman spectroscopy). Recent trends are the development of increased spatial resolution (e.g., toward the 10 nm region and below in AES and SIMS) and improved databases and evaluation software for quantitative analysis. With the exception of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... frequently. Different types of mass analyzers—including quadrupole, sector field (also denoted as high resolution), and time of flight—have been combined with low-pressure GD ion sources. Glow discharge sector field mass spectrometry (GD-SFMS), or high-resolution glow discharge mass spectrometry, is the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... presented in this division. Table 1 Quick reference summary of surface-analysis methods Analysis method Analysis probe Detection signal Analysis information Lateral resolution Depth resolution Typical applications Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Coated or noncoated cantilever probes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... light is the capability of tightly focusing the probing beam on the inspected surface. High spatial resolution can result from this sharp focusing, which is useful in gaging and profiling applications. Different types of image sensors used in visual inspection include: Vidicon or plumbicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... range, in relation to the sampling frequency. For static measurements sampling frequency relates to the quantity of gas required, while for continuous measurements, sampling frequency relates to the time resolution needed. For example, a sampling frequency of one minute would likely be adequate for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... structures of materials to the atomic resolution level. A major advantage of synchrotron XRD over its laboratory counterpart is the super brightness of the synchrotron radiation source, which is many orders of magnitude higher than that of a contemporary laboratory x-ray source ( Ref 1 – 3 ). The brightness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Metallography” in this Volume. While light microscopy is an important metallurgical tool, it has a number of limitations: Spatial resolution: Conventional light microscopes cannot resolve features smaller than ∼1 μm. Depth of field: Light microscopes cannot image rough surfaces; samples must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... source), they are accelerated through sampler/skimmer cones and ion lenses, entering a mass analyzer for separation. The function of a mass analyzer is to separate the ions according to their different mass/charge ( m / z ) ratios. The most crucial parameter of a mass analyzer is its resolution, or...