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residual elements

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract Quenching is a widely used technique to strengthen titanium alloys. This article presents the metallurgical and structural background underlying the specific techniques applied in the quenching of various titanium alloys, and the ways to control and reduce residual stresses induced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... resistance) through high hardness (strength) and/or load-bearing capacity (fatigue strength) through compressive residual stresses near the surface. Furthermore, the focus is mainly on tempering and bearing steels—that is, materials that are heat treated without the need for additional alloying elements as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... elements. During the nitriding process, compressive residual stresses are formed in the near-surface region of the materials due to the diffusion of nitrogen and the formation of nitride precipitates. The compressive stresses depend on the nitriding parameters and also on the steel composition. Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Structures exposed to the elements are often coated with zinc or painted, whereas mechanical components used in a dynamic mode are often lubricated. Protective coatings can partially or completely attenuate the incident x-ray beam and must be removed prior to residual-stress measurement. Removal of coatings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005950
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... microstructure, distortion, residual stress, and cracking in gears, shafts, and bearing rings. bearing rings cracking distortion electrical conductivity gears heat treatment heat treatment simulation induction hardening magnetic permeability microstructure phase transformation residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006632
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article provides a detailed account of x-ray diffraction (XRD) residual-stress techniques. It begins by describing the principles of XRD stress measurement, followed by a discussion on the most common methods of XRD residual-stress measurement. Some of the procedures required for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... an interior into tension. The final pattern of residual stress is a reflection of the geometry of the component and the temperature gradients generated throughout during the quench. Finite-element modeling of quenching and residual-stress prediction for simple-configuration aluminum alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... ultrasound phased array transducers, magnetostriction transducers, and couplants. The article discusses four basic types of search units with piezoelectric transducers. These include the straight-beam contact type, the angle-beam contact type, the dual-element contact type, and the immersion type. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The properties of carbon and alloy steels are dependent on the relationships between chemical composition, processing, and microstructure. This article discusses the effects of alloying and residual elements on the mechanical properties of carbon and alloy steels. Tables listing values...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... transformation diagrams, and continuous cooling transformation diagrams. The primary design criteria for heat treating of steels this article covers are the minimization of distortion and undesirable residual stresses. The article presents the theoretical and empirical guidelines to understand sources of common...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... diameter, 2.440 mm (0.0961 in.); and rosette mean diameter, 5.13 mm (0.202 in.) Fig. 7 (a) Typical three-element strain-gage rosette. (b) In-plane strain components caused by release of residual stress through introduction of a hole. Source: Ref 21 Fig. 4 Linear distribution of d...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... Abstract This article provides an explanation on how crystal plasticity is implemented within finite element formulations by the use of physical length scales: crystal scale and continuum scale. It provides theoretical formulations for kinematic framework for deforming crystals and polycrystals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... another class of nonlinear problems. Problems of creep, relaxation, hysteresis, phase change, and residual stress fall into this category. Fortunately, most nonlinear material models used in finite-element solutions carry over from disciplines that predate finite-element technology (e.g., theory of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a summary of the overall development of the finite element method (FEM) and its contribution to the materials forming industry. It presents an overview of FEM methodologies and applications in the order of their usage in typical manufacturing (bulk forming process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract When complex designs, transient loadings, and nonlinear material behavior must be evaluated, computer-based techniques are used. This is where the finite-element analysis (FEA) is most applicable and provides considerable assistance in design analysis as well as failure analysis. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... alloying-element atoms supersaturated in solid solution. On the other hand, during quenching, thermal gradients occur in components, which can generate residual stresses and distortion. Therefore, quenching should be done as slow as possible to keep residual stresses and distortion low. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Of the various thermal processing methods for steel, heat treating has the greatest overall impact on control of residual stress and on dimensional control. This article provides an overview of the effects of material- and process-related parameters on the various types of failures...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003251
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... XRD techniques are equally applicable to other crystalline materials, such as ceramics, geologic materials, and most inorganic chemical compounds. The addition of alloying elements, heating or cooling, and residual stresses cause slight changes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... the need to quench sufficiently fast to retain most of the hardening elements and compounds in solution and the need to minimize residual stress and distortion in the parts being quenched. Obtaining properties and low distortion is usually a balancing act. Often, optimal properties are obtained at the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Heat treating of stainless steel produces changes in physical condition, mechanical properties, and residual stress level and restores maximum corrosion resistance when that property has been adversely affected by previous fabrication or heating. This article focuses on annealing of...