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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Standardization, repeatability, convenience, short testing time, and simple measuring and ranking techniques are desirable in wear and erosion tests. This article provides a brief review of the wear testing methods and wear and erosion test equipment. General elements of a wear test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003983
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Rotary swaging is an incremental metalworking process for reducing the cross-sectional area or otherwise changing the shape of bars, tubes, or wires by repeated radial blows with two or more dies. This article discusses the applicability of swaging and metal flow during swaging. It...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., carbon and hardness gradients, and process procedures of different types of case hardening methods: carburizing (gas, pack, liquid, vacuum, and plasma), nitriding (gas, liquid, plasma), carbonitriding, cyaniding and ferritic nitrocarburizing. An accurate and repeatable method of measuring case depth is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... Abstract Polyurethane is any polymer consisting of a chain of repeating organic units joined by urethane linkages. Polyurethane polymers are formed through step-growth polymerization by making a monomer containing at least two isocyanate functional groups to react with another monomer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000604
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... note small microcracks through sulfide inclusions. SEM, 1,150×. (R.C. Voigt and B. Pourlaidian, University of Kansas) Cracking in 75-mm (3-in.) diam balls made of a high-chromium white iron when subjected to severe, repeated impacts in a laboratory test. Fig. 106 : Cracks through eutectic M 7 C 3...
Book Chapter

By Rebecca Tuszynski
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003011
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... D 1418 designation Repeating unit structure Comments Butadiene rubber BR … Natural rubber, isoprene rubber NR, IR … Chloroprene rubber CR … Styrene-butadiene rubber SBR (a) Acrylonitrile-butadiene (nitrile) rubber NBR (b) Isobutylene-isoprene (butyl...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... selecting the proper variables and controls for that test often involves an iterative process of testing, analyzing the results, examining the worn surfaces, and possibly adjusting the testing parameters to better establish the usefulness and repeatability of the results. Because the subject of wear testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... objective function is reevaluated, to say J 1 ( t ). An algorithm compares the J 0 ( t ) and J 1 ( t ) values with the design perturbation and provides a best guess for the next design perturbation. The calculations are repeated to obtain J 2 ( t ), then J 3 ( t ), and so forth, until such event...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... usually has hundreds of thousands of atoms. Fig. 5 Linear polymer with backbone and pendant chains For most polymers, the atoms that make up the backbone of a polymer chain come in a regular order, and this order repeats itself all along the length of the polymer chain. For example, in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005346
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... measurement methods. Many organizations overlook the importance of this. Poor measuring methodologies can result in significant wasted time in problem-solving efforts. MSA assesses the statistical properties of repeatability, reproducibility, bias, stability, and linearity of the system. The MSA process has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... tool determines the repeatability of machining results, as well as the attainable form and precision. Because of the small size of the cross section of the chip, there are no special demands on the power of the machine ( Ref 6 ). The main demands are a high static and dynamic stiffness, geometric and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... copolymers POM or acetal copolymers Celcon, Delrin Rigid, high chemical resistance, good frictional and fatigue properties 125 260 175 350 Polyetheretherketone PEEK PEEK-OPTIMA High stiffness, radiation and hydrolysis resistant, repeat sterilization 145 290 335 635 Zeniva Data from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nital etch. Courtesy of American Stress Technologies, Inc. Magnetic Barkhausen noise can also be correlated with residual-stress depth distributions for cases of grinding burn. Being a quantitative and established method, x-ray diffraction for residual stress is an objective and repeatable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... water. Dry with forced hot air. Cleaning Procedure for Heavy Oxide Films Vapor degrease in trichloroethylene. Virgo (Virgo is a proprietary molten descaling process) descale; 5 to 15 s at 470 ± 15 °C (875 ± 25 °F). Cold water rinse until all Virgo salt is removed. Dry; repeat steps...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... exciting the specimen itself. Studies of vibrothermography contact damage testing have been carried out. Lively et al. ( Ref 8 ) found no indication of any substantial surface damage to hard metals (Ti-6-4 and Inconel 718) from repeated testing with an ultrasonic welder. The study indicates that repeated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... validate stress measurement results are: Alignment of XRD instrumentation X-ray elastic constant determination Surface condition evaluation Collection parameter selection Repeatability and reproducibility determination Once all of the previous five steps have been completed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... second channel; c—e—e—e, round corner channel, ψ=45°, no friction To attain very large strains, ECAE should be repeated multiple times. Accumulated effective von Mises strains after N passes is: (Eq 3) ε = 2 N cot θ / 3 Simultaneously, the billet orientation may be changed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... repeating this procedure is a bar with two tines of tapering thickness that can be measured. The data for bars quenched into water at different temperatures can be seen in Fig. 1 , along with the very large end deflection noted for cold-water-quenched material. As the water temperature increases, the end...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... instrumental response of the analyte as a function of analyte concentration or amount. Each point on the plot must be measured several times so that the repeatability can be assessed. Only random uncertainty should be observed in the replicates; trends of increasing or decreasing response (hysteresis) must be...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Powder-metallurgy processing of superalloys has proved to be very repeatable and cost effective. The development of controlled intermediate grain sizes (ASTM ∼5–10), on the other hand, has proved to be challenging, requiring specialized TMP. Supersolvus heat treatment methods have been developed for P/M...