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refractory particles

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... of nonmetallic slag or refractory particles. The article reviews the considerations of flux formulation during shielded metal arc welding and flux cored arc welding (FCAW). It describes the types of fluxes used for submerged arc welding and FCAW as well as five essential groups of flux ingredients...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Cemented carbides belong to a class of hard, wear-resistant, refractory materials in which the hard carbide particles are bound together, or cemented, by a ductile metal binder. Cermet refers to a composite of a ceramic material with a metallic binder. This article discusses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... to a class of hard, wear-resistant, refractory materials in which the hard carbide particles are bound together, or cemented, by a soft and ductile metal binder. The performance of cemented carbide as a cutting tool lies between that of tool steel and cermets. Almost 50% of the total production of cemented...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... turbine engine applications. It discusses the general methodologies used to evaluate oxidation resistance of materials. The article describes the performance characteristics of superalloys, single-crystal superalloys, and other high-temperature materials such as refractory metals and ceramics...
Book Chapter

Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... For machining rough surfaces of castings where the surfaces contain abrasive material, such as residual sand, surface oxides, slag, or refractory particles Tools made of cast cobalt alloys usually are not recommended for light, very fast finishing cuts. Typical wear applications for these alloys include...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Common types of inclusions in aluminum foundry melts Table 1 Common types of inclusions in aluminum foundry melts Inclusion type Chemical formula Form Density Size range g/cm 3 lb/in. 3 μm μin. Oxides Alumina Al 2 O 3 Particles, skins 3.97 0.143 0.2–30...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0009017
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of the casting. These particles commonly include: Oxides formed during melting, metal transfer, and pouring Refractory particles from the furnace and ladle Refractory particles present in the gating system or dislodged from the mold or cores during pouring Reaction products from metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... for protection from grit blasting. Commercially available compounds comprise refractory particles, such as graphite, carried in water or solvent soluble binders. These can be applied by brushing or spraying. When dry, the film prevents overspray from sticking, while the refractory particles provide short-term...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003175
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the casting. One quenching method that does this is quenching into a fluidized bed of small refractory particles. After the castings are quenched, they are heated to an intermediate temperature to precipitate the supersaturated phases that strengthen the casting and give it its properties. The properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... Microstructure of a hot-pressed Al 2 O 3 -TiC ceramic tool material. 1500× The dispersion of hard refractory particles increases the hardness of these composites at temperatures up to 800 °C (1470 °F) when compared to monolithic oxide ceramics ( Fig. 2 ). Simultaneously, the fracture toughness and bending...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
..., and not cause the injected gas to directly impinge on the fixed surfaces, such as container walls or cooling tubes. More design tips and details are provided in major texts and information sources on fluidization ( Ref 4 ). It is practical to adopt a layer of coarse refractory particles to act...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003172
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is a colloidal dispersion of virtually spherical particles of silica in water. The average particle size is 7 to 10 nm. Slurries are controlled by adjusting viscosity, temperature, and solids content. The first slurry consists of a fine refractory aggregate, usually more expensive than that used in later...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
...Material and process variables influencing corrosion of refractory materials Table 1 Material and process variables influencing corrosion of refractory materials Material variables Chemical composition and makeup of aggregates/grains Refractory matrix makeup and bond Physical...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003065
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is at least 99% SiO 2 . A large proportion is 99.5% SiO 2 , minimum. For most white glass, the iron content (Fe 2 O 3 ) must be less than 0.03%. Float glass, colored container glass, and fiberglass can tolerate a higher iron content. Other impurities, including refractory heavy mineral chrome and nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... Flexural strength Modulus of elasticity Impact strength (a) MPa ksi MPa ksi MPa ksi GPa 10 6 psi J ft · lbf Low-voltage porcelain 10–17 1.5–2.5 172–345 25–50 24–41 3.5–6 48–69 7–10 0.3–0.4 0.2–0.3 Cordierite refractory 7–24 1.0–3.5 138–310 20–45 10–48 1.5–7 13.8–34...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
...Heat energy input and particle velocity for common thermal spray processes Table 3 Heat energy input and particle velocity for common thermal spray processes Input heat energy to particle Output particle velocity (a) Process High Low Highest High Medium high Medium Low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...° angle air caps for coating inside diameters. The velocities of the sprayed particles from a rod gun and those from a powder gun are compared in Fig. 7 . Silicides are the most important coating materials for protecting refractory metals against oxidation. Silicide-based coatings protect by means...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... cases, an activating agent such as nickel, cobalt, or iron is added to improve the sintering effect on the refractory metal particles. For this process, powders of much finer particle size are required so that more bonding surface exists. However, the skeleton formed by this process is weaker than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006124
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... on the densification behavior of refractory metals. The densification behavior during sintering depends on the type of particles added ( Ref 8 , 9 ), their size, and their content. Enhanced sintering can be attributed to pinning of grain boundaries by insoluble particles (via the Zener effect), which maintains...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Mold/Metal Interface and Refractory Control Separation Techniques Gating Methods Inclusion Shape Control Some applications for inclusion minimization or shape control are immediately obvious. For example, proprietary addition agents are available for modifying the viscosity of slag...