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refractory metals

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article briefly discusses the annealing practices for refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium and their alloys. It also presents the applications and properties of these metals and their alloys. annealing microstructure molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the forging characteristics of different types of refractory metals and alloys, namely, niobium and niobium alloys, molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, tantalum and tantalum alloys, and tungsten and tungsten alloys. forging molybdenum molybdenum alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005332
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... channel furnaces, the liquid metal is covered with graphite to reduce oxygen levels, because oxides damage the refractories. Hydrogen in these melts is removed by flushing with dry nitrogen or argon. Since there is usually a small amount of hydrogen and oxygen in the last metal to freeze, some steam...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. They are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low temperatures. Protective coating systems have been developed, mostly for niobium alloys, to permit their use in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplating finishing joining mechanical grinding molten caustic process molybdenum niobium oxidation-resistant coatings pickling plating refractory metals solvent cleaning surface cleaning tantalum tungsten THE REFRACTORY METALS include niobium (also known as columbium), tantalum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals, detailing the major aspects of forming, including formability, lubrication, and forming methods and tools. The effect of factors such as alloy condition, cold reduction, forming direction (in the case of heat-resistant alloys) and temperature (in the case of refractory metals) on formability is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different types of stainless steels such as austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening, and on the heat treatment of superalloys and refractory metals. It discusses the recommended procedures for solution annealing, austenite conditioning, transformation cooling, and age...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses surface engineering of nonferrous metals including aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and hafnium, zinc alloys, and refractory metals and alloys. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, refractory metals and alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, and wrought heat-resisting alloys. The preparation of specimens for metallographic technique includes operations such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching of nonferrous metals and alloys. The article contains tables that...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... steel 20 … 490 High-temperature and refractory metals and alloys Beryllium ( Ref 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 70 ) 45 … … Beryllium ( Ref 33 ) 45 … … Beryllium (hot extrusion) ( Ref 69 ) 90 … … Chromium ( Ref 78 ) 45 174 … Molybdenum:  Rolled ( Ref 31 , 67 ) 45 191...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
..., aluminum alloys, and the refractory metals. However, there are exceptions, such as when the oxide film on the metal surface is very thin and dense and its hardness is much higher than that of the base metal. Finally, some combinations of metals are thermally unstable and form brittle intermetallic...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... substantially lower than numerous other metals, as shown in Table 1 . Of these higher-density alternatives, only depleted uranium, tungsten, and tantalum are practical for most commercial applications. Tantalum is discussed in the Section “Refractory Metals and Alloys” in this Handbook. The remainder of this...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article characterizes the corrosion resistance of precious metals, namely, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, osmium, iridium, platinum, and gold. It provides a discussion on the general fabricability; atomic, structural, physical, and mechanical properties; oxidation and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003150
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... iron, stainless steel, and copper alloys to themselves and each other. They are also used in the brazing of some reactive and refractory metals, although the latter are restricted to low-temperature use. These brazing alloys are generally Ag-Cu-Zn alloys, some with additions of cadmium, manganese...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... HX 1290 2350 Refractory metals and alloys Niobium 2470 4475 Nb-1Zr 2400 4350 Molybdenum 2610 4730 Mo-0.5Ti 2610 4730 Tantalum 2995 5425 Tungsten 3410 6170 W-25Re 3100 5612 W-50Re 2550 4622 Precious metals and alloys Gold (99.995% min Au) 1063...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
.... The first group includes the transition metal-metal binary alloy systems, such as copper-zirconium, nickel-titanium, and nickel-niobium, as well as binary alloys in the aluminum-refractory metal and Al-TM type. The second class consists of TM-metalloid alloys. These alloys are usually iron-, nickel...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Filters strain out most of the slag or dross that may have been carried in from the melting operation, and pieces of mold refractory that may have come loose during molding. Metal should not rain down from the top of the sprue or into the casting because it will react with the air in the runner system or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... composed of compounds containing metallic and nonmetallic materials used in applications such as whitewares, structural clay products, glass, electronics, and cements. Specific applications of refractories include liners for basic oxygen and electric arc steelmaking furnaces, steel ladles, aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...