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refractory metal

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article focuses on the forging characteristics of different types of refractory metals and alloys, namely, niobium and niobium alloys, molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, tantalum and tantalum alloys, and tungsten and tungsten alloys. forging molybdenum molybdenum alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article briefly discusses the annealing practices for refractory metals such as tungsten, molybdenum, niobium, tantalum, and rhenium and their alloys. It also presents the applications and properties of these metals and their alloys. annealing microstructure molybdenum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. They are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low temperatures. Protective coating systems have been developed, mostly for niobium alloys, to permit their use in high-temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electroplating finishing joining mechanical grinding molten caustic process molybdenum niobium oxidation-resistant coatings pickling plating refractory metals solvent cleaning surface cleaning tantalum tungsten THE REFRACTORY METALS include niobium (also known as columbium), tantalum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses surface engineering of nonferrous metals including aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and hafnium, zinc alloys, and refractory metals and alloys. It describes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals, detailing the major aspects of forming, including formability, lubrication, and forming methods and tools. The effect of factors such as alloy condition, cold reduction, forming direction (in the case of heat-resistant alloys) and temperature (in the case of refractory metals) on formability is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... alloys, refractory metals and alloys, zinc and zinc alloys, and wrought heat-resisting alloys. The preparation of specimens for metallographic technique includes operations such as sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching of nonferrous metals and alloys. The article contains tables that...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... different types of stainless steels such as austenitic, ferritic, duplex, martensitic, and precipitation-hardening, and on the heat treatment of superalloys and refractory metals. It discusses the recommended procedures for solution annealing, austenite conditioning, transformation cooling, and age...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... composed of compounds containing metallic and nonmetallic materials used in applications such as whitewares, structural clay products, glass, electronics, and cements. Specific applications of refractories include liners for basic oxygen and electric arc steelmaking furnaces, steel ladles, aluminum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ), and refractory metals. Discontinuous reinforcements consist mainly of SiC in whisker (w) form, particulate (p) types of SiC, Al 2 O 3 , and titanium diboride (TiB 2 ), and short or chopped fibers (c) of Al 2 O 3 or graphite. Most of the commercial work on MMCs has...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... a filter. The two most common media found in today's (2008) aluminum foundries are screens and refractory foam filters ( Fig. 6 , 7 ). Screens, for all intent and purpose, are two-dimensional structures with evenly spaced round or square holes. Regardless of composition, that is, metal or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ladles Dosing furnaces for delivery of controlled quantities (doses) of molten metal to the mold or die This article describes these typical systems for transporting, holding, or delivering molten metal to the mold/die system. Specific molten-metal treatments and refractories are covered in other...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005261
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... lowering the machine platen to the furnace or by raising the furnace to meet the platen. In former times, the fill/stalk tubes were typically constructed of steel or cast iron to which a protective refractory coating was applied to prevent deterioration in the molten metal. High-strength, nonwetting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... using 356 aluminum alloy, the effect of furnace refractory and furnace filter condition on the overall metal cleanliness was evaluated. The results from this study are shown in Fig. 9 . As expected, damaged furnace refractory along with a damaged furnace filter yielded the lowest mass flow rate. The...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005186
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Casting is one of the most economical and efficient methods for producing metal parts. In terms of scale, it is well suited for everything from low-volume, prototype production runs to filling global orders for millions of parts. Casting also affords great flexibility in terms of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... microstructural scale for homogenization of metal alloys. It also discusses the CALPHAD software to optimize the homogenization heat treatment and the Scheil module of the commercial thermodynamic modeling software. castings computational algorithm heat treatment homogenization incipient melt point...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Metal matrix composites (MMCs) can be synthesized by vapor phase, liquid phase, or solid phase processes. This article emphasizes the liquid-phase processing where solid reinforcements are incorporated in the molten metal or alloy melt that is allowed to solidify to form a composite...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cemented carbides belong to a class of hard, wear-resistant, refractory materials in which the hard carbide particles are bound together, or cemented, by a ductile metal binder. Cermet refers to a composite of a ceramic material with a metallic binder. This article discusses the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... spouts and in a wide variety of traditional and specialized shapes. There is no direct impingement of the flame on the metal, and the heat loss to the outside is limited by the refractory walls. However, the energy efficiency of the crucible furnace can be low (7 to 19%), with over 60% of the heat loss...