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refractory alloys

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001079
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
...Abstract Abstract All refractory metals, except osmium and iridium, have the highest melting temperatures and lowest vapor pressures of all metals. This article discusses the commercial applications, and production procedures of refractory metals and alloys. These procedures include fabrication...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract The refractory metals include niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and rhenium. They are readily degraded by oxidizing environments at moderately low temperatures. Protective coating systems have been developed, mostly for niobium alloys, to permit their use in high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001313
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that has restricted the applicability of the metals to low-temperature or nonoxidizing high-temperature environments. Protective coating systems have been developed, mostly for niobium alloys, to permit their use in high-temperature oxidizing aerospace applications. Refractory metals at one time were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... used on refractory metals. The article presents and analyzes several micrographs, provides etchant formulas for various materials, and discusses the unique characteristics of rhenium and its alloys. electrolytic etching etchants grinding metallographic preparation metallography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005167
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the formability and surface contamination of the refractory metals such as niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, tungsten, and titanium-zirconium-molybdenum alloys. It reviews the factors that affect mechanical properties and formability during rolling and heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the forging characteristics of different types of refractory metals and alloys, namely, niobium and niobium alloys, molybdenum and molybdenum alloys, tantalum and tantalum alloys, and tungsten and tungsten alloys. forging molybdenum molybdenum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006133
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... molybdenum niobium quality control refractory metal powders rhenium secondary operations tantalum tungsten tungsten heavy alloys welding REFRACTORY METALS are typically processed from powders into ingots that are subsequently swaged into round bars or rolled into plates. Additional rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006123
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
...Abstract Abstract This article focuses on the selection, properties, and applications of powder metallurgy refractory metals and their alloys, including tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, niobium, and rhenium. molybdenum niobium powder metallurgy refractory metals rhenium tantalum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the furnace and the alloy being melted. At melting temperatures, the refractories react with the molten alloy to some extent. In some cases, the refractories are deliberately selected to produce reactions that refine the metal. These reactions are the cause of refractory degradation and determine the life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract This article provides a discussion on filler metal selection, brazing procedures, and brazing equipment for brazing refractory metals. These include molybdenum, tungsten, niobium, and tantalum, and reactive metals. Commercially pure and alpha titanium alloys, alpha-beta alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... considerations, and brazing and fabricating the copper coil winding for heating billets, bars, and slabs. The article describes refractory selection criteria and the methods of mounting and securing the induction coil winding, and presents general refractory installation guidelines for induction heating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses special metallurgical considerations during the fusion welding of refractory metal alloys. These considerations are: microstructure, interstitial impurities, and welding conditions that are considered during the fusion welding of refractory metal alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... 2300 4170 1.5 0.054 Excellent Copper, copper alloys The melting crucible material is not inert and is actually another source of oxygen and other impurities, depending on refractory type and condition. Therefore, both melt refining temperature and refining duration are carefully...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... to tap out will vary, depending on the type of charge materials and alloy additions used to produce steel in the acid melting practice. The furnace lining will be made from silica or alumina refractories. These refractories determine the type of slag generated during melting, along with the dirt...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses surface engineering of nonferrous metals including aluminum and aluminum alloys, copper and copper alloys, magnesium alloys, nickel and nickel alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium and hafnium, zinc alloys, and refractory metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and refractory metals, detailing the major aspects of forming, including formability, lubrication, and forming methods and tools. The effect of factors such as alloy condition, cold reduction, forming direction (in the case of heat-resistant