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reflective surfaces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... subjected to stress; bearing surfaces; plateau honed and tapped surfaces; and reflective, painted, elastic, and wear-resistant surfaces. bearing surfaces contact techniques elastic surfaces focus-follow method ground surface milled machined surfaces noncontact techniques painted surfaces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001833
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... other lamp farther from the specimen. Fig. 9 Vertical illumination. The glass plate below the lens is set at a 45° angle. It reflects the light beam to the specimen surface. A portion of this light is reflected from the specimen back through the glass plate to the camera lens. This results in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... offers a number of forms of illumination for revealing surface detail: Bright-field illumination is the most widely used. The incident light is reflected back through the objective, producing a bright background with dark features. Dark-field illumination is particularly useful for analyzing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the radiation emitted and/or reflected from the surface. Other techniques use other interactions, such as physical probing of the surface. Many techniques have become somewhat routine and are available to most failure analysts, either through an in-house laboratory or from an outside service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001298
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... depth, which is defined as the distance from the surface to the depth with 63% or 1/ e of the intensity of the reflection line, is calculated for Ω- and Ψ-diffractometers, respectively: τ Ω = ( sin 2 θ − sin 2 ψ ) / [ 2 μ ( sin θ cos ψ ) ] τ Ψ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... achieve bond coat densification and diffusion bonding to the substrate. The selection of the TBC system involves many considerations, principally knowledge of the intended service conditions, temperature reduction expectations, component life estimates, cost, and in some cases the external surface finish...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006475
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Vibration Metal fragment detection Displacement or level Inclusions Velocity Chemical composition Acceleration Thickness Concentricity Tire testing Coating studies Metals Thickness (by surface reflections) Vibration Displacement or level Velocity Diameter and length...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... so that it emits a second wave front coherent with the wave front from the object-beam transducer. The reference-beam transducer is aimed at the same region of the liquid surface as the object beam, where the wave fronts interfere. The image is reconstructed from the hologram by reflecting a beam of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006763
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... applied to failure analysis, both in the field and in the laboratory. Failure analysis information gathering begins with visual examination. The details observed on a fracture surface are based on fracture surface topography, repeated fracture surface features, reflectivity, and color characteristics...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., are acquired easily in a glass capillary tube. Alternatively, powders can be pressed into pellets and analyzed. Careful analysis of species on metal surfaces also provides useful information. Raman analyses of these samples are usually performed by reflecting the laser beam off the metal surface and...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Abstract This article is a compilation of terms and definitions related to failure analysis and prevention. This glossary is intended to help promote clear thinking and useful failure analysis. The definitions presented are those used in this volume and reflect common and modern understanding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...—nearly identical to personal hair dryers—that deliver a significant amount of heat to the sample regardless of its IR or optical reflectivity. A fan forces air past a nichrome wire coil, and the expelled hot air is directed onto the sample by the operator, heating the surface by convection. They operate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... generally refers to reflected light microscopy. In this method, light is reflected from the sample surface through the microscope objective to an eyepiece, view screen, or camera. Transmitted light is occasionally used for transparent and translucent materials. For low-magnification work (stereomicroscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001305
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Passivation; pickling, that is, acid descaling; electropolishing; and mechanical cleaning are important surface treatments for the successful performance of stainless steel used for piping, pressure vessels, tanks, and machined parts in a wide variety of applications. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...] may not be used for surface treatment, as a stabilize, or as a pigment” ( Ref 7 ). Section 45(j)—“Products whose surface has been treated with a cadmium substance or which contain such a substance as a stabilizer or pigment may not be imported commercially” ( Ref 7 ). The Swedish statute does...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides a brief review of the classification and characteristics of cast irons. It describes the processes used to clean iron castings, including mechanical cleaning and finishing and nonmechanical cleaning. The article discusses surface treatments used to extend casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001319
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of plasma surface treatments for plastics. It covers the equipment and methods used in plasma processing, providing detailed explanations of the plasma discharge reactions and how they affect surface state and topography. It also provides information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... polished more readily to a surface of high reflectivity. If a matte finish is desired, wet blasting with a fine slurry may be used after initial polishing. Titanium alloys can be buffed safely. The purpose of buffing is to improve the surface appearance of the metal and produce a smooth tight surface...