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reflected-light optical microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009080
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... double-pass impregnation. The article illustrates reflected-light optical microscopy techniques to evaluate the morphology of thermoplastic materials for determining the material quality and correlating key microstructural features with material performance. dispersed-phase toughening double-pass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009075
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscopy. bright-field illumination composite materials contrast microscopy dark-field illumination dyes etchants fluorescence microscopy interference microscopy macrophotography microscope alignment optical microscopy polarized-light microscopy reflected-light microscopy sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006684
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The reflected light microscope is the most commonly used tool to study the microstructure of metals, composites, ceramics, minerals, and polymers. For the study of the microstructure of metals and alloys, light microscopy is employed in the reflected-light mode using either bright...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009071
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... yield the required information, transmitted-light optical microscopy can provide insights into the microstructures of these materials that would otherwise remain hidden when using standard bulk metallographic preparation techniques and reflected illumination. Because many thermoset materials are inert...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... however, etchants, stains, or dyes may be required for further clarification of the morphology or crack identification. If reflected light techniques do not yield the required information, transmitted-light optical microscopy can provide insights into the microstructures of materials that would otherwise...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... polarization. In reflected light microscopes, special illumination techniques can be applied to reveal details of the microstructure even in the as-polished condition. These optical techniques (see the section “Examination Modes” in this article) include dark-field illumination, polarized light microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... greater calibration efforts, however, and always depend on assumptions wit regard to microstructure. Ellipsometry and reflectometry basically involve the measurement of changes in phase shift or intensity, respectively, as light reflects from material. Optical properties and film thicknesses of the...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Practice , McGraw-Hill , 1984 Optical metallography, one of three general categories of metallography, entails examination of materials using visible light to provide a magnified image of the micro- and macrostructure. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the second category, the surface of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... include reflected light microscopy using polarized light, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, and wavelength dispersive analysis of X-rays. Macroscopic property characterization involves measurement of porosity, density, and surface area...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article introduces the concepts of electron and light microscopy with some general features of imaging systems and the ideas of magnification, resolution, depth of field, depth of focus, and lens aberrations as they apply to simple and familiar light-optical systems. In...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001766
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... through the ground glass lenses in an optical microscope configured to operate in the transmitted-light mode (except that the electron follows a spiral path through the lens as it is focused, while light is focused through the lens in a plane in an optical microscope). Consequently, the electrons “flood...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation scanning electron microscope scanning electron microscopy THE SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is one of the most versatile instruments for investigating the microscopic features of most solid materials. Compared to the light microscope, it expands the resolution range by more than 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract The application of transmission electron microscope to the study of fracture surfaces and related phenomena has made it possible to obtain magnifications and depths of field much greater than those possible with light (optical) microscopes. This article reviews the methods for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0009076
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
...-reinforced composites are performed using reflected-light optical microscopy, a sample-preparation technique that enables transmitted-light analysis is extremely valuable ( Ref 1 ). At the ultrathin level, even opaque materials become optically transparent. This preparation is needed to resolve and analyze...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006658
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... cantilever distance d is given by Hooke’s law ( F = − kd ). In contact-mode atomic force microscopy, the deflection of the cantilever is measured by a laser reflected off the top of the cantilever. F = − kX Thus, if a light lever force sensor can measure a deflection of 100 nm, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...-5.00001-4 Microstructure observation is an essential approach for materials characterization, which is primarily performed by using light optical microscopy and then scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to perform further detailed microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-mode scanning acoustic microscopy reflection-mode micrograph of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic test sample. The ultrasound was focused near the top surface of the sample. Field of view: 19 × 14 mm Figure 15 shows an optical picture of an aluminum oxide panel with laser-machined holes. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... electron Two major advantages of the SEM over the optical microscope as a tool for examining surfaces are improvements in resolution and depth of field. Information on the determination of resolution and depth of field in the optical microscope is provided in the article “Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... discussed in the article “Visual Examination and Light Microscopy” in this Volume. These terms can also be applied, and are applied fracture on microscopic level. Ductile fractures are those that occur by microvoid formation and coalescence, whereas brittle fractures can occur by either transgranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... illustrations. The article also describes microscopic and macroscopic features of the different fracture mechanisms with illustrations with emphasis on visual and light microscopy examination. The types of fractures considered include ductile fractures, tensile-test fractures, brittle fractures, fatigue...