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refinery furnaces

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004211
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... Abstract This article presents the primary considerations and mechanisms for corrosion and explains how they are involved in the selection of materials for process equipment in refineries and petrochemical plants. It discusses the material selection criteria for a number of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003700
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Abstract This article provides useful information on the occurrence of corrosion in crude oil refinery units, namely, crude unit, catalytic and thermal cracking units, hydroprocessing units, amine sweetening units, and sour water units. Types and applications of corrosion inhibitors, namely...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... for the pack aluminizing process. Typical applications include carbon steel heat-exchanger tubes used in sulfuric acid plants, low-alloy steel pipes and fittings used in petroleum refinery heaters, type 304 stainless steel vessels used in flue gas desulfurization systems, and HK or HP cast tubing for ethylene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006122
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... and, in 1902, built the first refinery at Clydach, South Wales, to produce high-purity nickel pellets. The International Nickel Company (Inco) acquired the plant in the 1920s, and in 1943, commercial powder production began. In 1973, Inco opened a second carbonyl plant in Sudbury, Canada, the site of its major...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002387
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... assessment, repair, maintenance, and life extension of various engineering components used in power plants, chemical processing plants, and refineries. Major costs are associated with each of these steps, and cost-effective implementation of failure control can be viewed, in general terms, from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005267
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The injection end of a hot chamber die casting machine is shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Basic components of a typical hot chamber die casting system Melting Process The holding furnace, which can also serve as a melting furnace if a central melting facility is not used, has traditionally been gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001118
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., processors, dealers and brokers, sweat furnace operators, and dross reclaimers. Source: U.S. Bureau Mines Scrap incurred in the processing or fabrication of semifabricated aluminum products represents an additional source of recyclable aluminum. Traditionally, this form of new scrap has been returned...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006484
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... furnaces used for melting aluminum. aluminum casting dross metal recycling metallic scrap refining melting thermal processing ALUMINUM RECYCLING started less than 20 years after the commercialization of the Hall-Héroult process in 1888, driven by the high value and several unique...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides a detailed discussion on the types of furnace atmospheres required for heat treating. These include generated exothermic-based atmospheres, generated endothermic-based atmospheres, generated exothermic-endothermic-based atmospheres, generated dissociated-ammonia...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article discusses pressure vessels, piping, and associated pressure-boundary items of the types used in nuclear and conventional power plants, refineries, and chemical-processing plants. It begins by explaining the necessity of conducting a failure analysis, followed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... . Principal uses and types of pressure tubes Table 2 Principal uses and types of pressure tubes Use groups Types Water tube boilers Generating tubes, superheater tubes, economizer tubes, circulator tubes, furnace wall tubes Fire tube boilers Boiler flues, superheater flues, superheater...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003051
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... bauxite ores with A/S below 7, in China and Russia, by sintering the bauxite ore with sodium carbonate and limestone to form sodium aluminate and calcium silicate. There are approximately 87 alumina refineries in operation worldwide, 80% of which use some variation of the Bayer process, 14% a sintering...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Temperature control in heat treating is of paramount importance in maintaining the quality and achieving the desired metallurgical results. This article provides a detailed account of the factors affecting temperature control in heat treating furnaces, with information on temperature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003210
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article provides information about the selection of brazing processes and filler metals and describes the brazing (heating) methods, including manual torch brazing, furnace brazing, induction brazing, dip brazing, resistance brazing and specialized brazing processes...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001293
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and environmentally unfriendly. Automation with robotics is theoretically possible but no such systems are known to be in use. Furnace Temperature Cycle and Heat Treatments Furnaces with specified temperature capability and uniformity and associated inert gas delivery systems are the most costly components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-Miller parameter (LMP), in particular, is arguably the most widely used time-temperature parameter for the design of high-temperature components. The American Petroleum Institute’s API Standard 530: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries , for example, uses the LMP for the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... used for the conventional tin-lead solders. In the case of preforms, oven heating is used for short runs, and conveyor-type furnaces are used for large runs. In special cases, the use of induction heating, heat guns, or reducing atmospheres is recommended. Vapor-phase soldering with indium-base alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... and may reduce tool life in machining operations when present as coarse particles. Large quantities will have detrimental effects on mechanical properties and ductility. Boride particles are more dense than aluminum, so large additions result in furnace sludging, particle agglomeration, and an increased...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... ). An example of a filler-metal-added dissimilar weld for high-temperature service can be found in hydrogen furnaces. In many applications, centrifugal-cast, secondary-carbide-strengthened furnace tubes are welded to collection headers of UNS 08800 using ERNiCrCoMo-1, to achieve a combination of strength...