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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses selected highlights of thermodynamic relationships during solidification and nucleation kinetics behavior in connection with the basis of nucleation treatments, such as grain refinement and inoculation, to provide a summary of nucleation phenomena during casting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005302
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Grain refinement in aluminum casting alloys tends to reduce the amount of porosity and the size of the pores and to improve mechanical properties, especially fatigue strength. This article provides information on measurement of grain size in alloys and describes the mechanisms of grain...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Primary silicon in hypereutectic aluminum-silicon alloys is very hard, not only imparting improved wear resistance but also decreasing tool life during machining. This article discusses the importance of primary silicon refinement and the process of accomplishing primary silicon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003995
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... schedules. The article describes the metallurgical processes in grain refinement of austenite steel by hot working, such as recovery and recrystallization and strain-induced transformation. The grain refinement in high strength low alloy steel by alloy addition is also discussed. The article provides an...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes the casting characteristics and practices of copper and copper alloys. It discusses the melting and melt control of copper alloys, including various melt treatments to improve melt quality. These melt treatments include fluxing and metal refining, degassing...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005306
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article briefly reviews the melt processing and casting of non-ferrous alloys, such as nickel alloys, titanium alloys, and lead alloys. It describes the lead refining steps, namely, copper drossing, softening, desilvering, zinc removal, bismuth removal, and final refining...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... stoichiometry of intermetallic phases, and control of solidification conditions. The article discusses the modification and grain refinement of aluminum-silicon alloys by the use of modifiers and refiners to influence eutectic and hypereutectic structures in aluminum-silicon alloys. It provides information on...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the most common methods of melting steels, namely, electric arc and induction melting. It describes the classification of refractories by an index of the “basicity” of the slag formed on the steel surface. The steel melt refinements are classified as treatments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003999
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract Forging of nickel-base alloys results in geometries that reduce the amount of machining to obtain final component shapes and involves deformation processing to refine the grain structure of components or mill products. This article discusses the heating practice, die materials, and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on forging methods, melting procedures, forging equipment, forging practices, grain refinement, and critical factors considered in forging process. It describes the different types of solid-solution-strengthened and precipitation-strengthened...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analysis, software programs for crystal structure solution and refinement, and visualization of crystal structures. The article ends with a discussion on various databases available for single-crystal XRD analysis. crystal structure single-crystal X-ray diffraction...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract The vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots and also used in the triplex production of superalloys. This article illustrates the VAR process and the capabilities...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Electron beam melting includes melting, refining, and conversion processes for metals and alloys. This article describes the electron beam melting process, as well as the principles, equipment, and process considerations of drip melting and cold hearth melting process. electron...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... electrodes. It describes the VIM refinement process, which includes removal of trace elements, nitrogen and hydrogen degassing, and deoxidation. The article concludes with information on production of nonferrous materials by VIM. deoxidation trace elements vacuum induction melting electrodes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., elastic and plastic behaviors of single crystals, refinements to the single-crystal constitutive, and crystal-scale finite-element. The article also presents examples that illustrate the capabilities of the formulations at the length scales. crystal-scale simulations finite-element formulations...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract The melting process often includes refining and treating the metal. The choice of which type of melting to use depends on a number of factors: type of alloy being melted, the local cost of electric power, and local environmental regulations. This article discusses the principles...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and rotor steels have higher quality requirements and tighter composition control than plain carbon or ordinary low-alloy steels. The production of special-quality steels requires vacuum-based induction or electric remelting and refining capabilities. The article explores the types and characteristics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006278
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... specific exposure time, usually 1 h. Copper is available in several types, all of which may be considered to be of high quality. Among the most commonly used types are electrolytic tough pitch copper, lake (silver-bearing) copper, fire-refined tough pitch copper, phosphorized deoxidized...
Book Chapter

By John C. Bittence
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Sorting and identification procedures follow those outlined in the introduction to this article. Further processing is quite straight forward, basically melting and refining the scrap into its new composition. Precious metals play a key role in the electronic and electrical industries. While...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... fractions of the alpha and beta phases. Fine-grain processing to refine both the alpha and beta phases is the goal of numerous special thermomechanical processes. Many different microstructure morphologies can be generated by processing titanium in the beta field, in the alpha+beta phase field, or by...