1-20 of 235 Search Results for

reference electrode

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article discusses a tool for the conversion of measurements made against various reference electrodes at different temperatures. It reviews different electrode potential temperature coefficients, namely, isothermal temperature coefficient and thermal temperature coefficient. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Batch furnaces and continuous furnaces are commonly used in heat treating. This article provides a detailed account of various heat treating equipment and its furnace types, including salt bath equipment (externally heated, immersed-electrode and submerged-electrode furnaces), and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... are shaped to follow approximately the slope of the pot wall. The portion of the electrode that crosses over the top of the salt bath and is connected to the plant power source is referred to as the cold leg. This is welded to the hot leg, the portion of the electrode that is immersed in the bath...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) is the oldest quantitative electrochemical procedure ( Ref 11 ) described by Gibbs and may refer to: Electroplating : a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a coherent metal coating on an electrode Electrophoretic deposition: a term for a...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... typically referred to as an electrode for subsequent ESR and/or VAR operation. The casting weight can vary from a few kilograms to 30 Mg (33 tons), depending on whether the VIM furnace is being used for precision casting or for the production of ingots or electrodes for further remelting. Fig. 6...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and from metal power mixed with the electrode coverings of certain electrodes. Shielded metal arc welding is often referred to as arc welding with stick electrodes, manual metal arc welding, and stick welding. Shielded metal arc welding is the most widely used welding process for joining metal...
Book Chapter

By G. Keough
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005203
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Skull melting refers to the use of furnaces with water-cooled crucibles that freeze a solid “skull” of material on the crucible wall. This article describes the basic components, operating pressure, advantages, and applications of vacuum arc and induction skull melting furnaces...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Homogenization, in a broad sense, refers to processes designed to achieve uniform distribution of solutes or phases in a given matrix. This article addresses the root cause for inhomogeneities in cast components. It is nearly standard industrial practice to homogenize alloys before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004001
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... gamma aluminides with particular reference to production scaleable techniques, including vacuum arc and cold-hearth melting, isothermal forging, conventional hot forging, and extrusion. The selection and design of manufacturing methods, in the context of processing-cost trade-offs for gamma titanium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cemented carbides belong to a class of hard, wear-resistant, refractory materials in which the hard carbide particles are bound together, or cemented, by a ductile metal binder. Cermet refers to a composite of a ceramic material with a metallic binder. This article discusses the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast iron, which usually refers to an in situ composite of stable eutectic graphite in a steel matrix, includes the major classifications of gray iron, ductile iron, compacted graphite iron, malleable iron, and white iron. This article discusses melting, pouring, desulfurization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract For most nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, the term thermography actually refers to surface-excited thermography (SET) that involves thermal mapping of surface temperature as heat flows from, to, or through a test object in response to excitation applied to the sample...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... synergy between the elements of the materials selection process and presents a general comparison of material properties. Finally, the article provides a short note on computer aided materials selection systems, which help in proper archiving of materials selection decisions for future reference...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001296
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... state. The measurement of the electrode potential is only possible relative to that of a second electrode, so all potentials are related to the potential of a standard hydrogen electrode, which is by definition set to zero as reference. Standard potentials can be listed for all metals and for specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0006540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... pure cpm cycles per minute CPT critical pitting temperature CSE saturated copper-sulfate reference electrode CTE coefficient of thermal expansion CVD chemical vapor deposition CW cold work d density; used in mathematical expressions involving a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... potential of the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydrogen gas at 25 °C (77 °F), one atmosphere of pressure, and unit activity of hydrogen ions. The potential of this primary reference standard hydrogen electrode is denoted as zero on the SHE scale. Because of the difficulties in physically constructing...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Remelting” in this Volume for a brief description of VAC-ESR). The VAR process is widely used to improve the cleanliness and refine the structure of standard air-melted or vacuum induction melted (VIM) ingots (typically referred to as consumable electrodes for remelting). The VAR process is also commonly...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... joined in one or more spots by the heat generated by resistance to the flow of electric current through workpieces that are held together under force by electrodes. The contacting surfaces in the region of current concentration are heated by a short-time pulse of low-voltage, high-amperage current to...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... often omit the 0s. Thus, the previously mentioned slag is generally referred to as 60/20/20. Source: Ref 7 Fig. 5 ESR electrode with stinger Fig. 3 Basic design of a modern ESR furnace with a fixed mold. 1, ram drive system; 2, electrode ram; 3, XY adjustment; 4, load cell system...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... All major additions are made to the furnace through the roof by swinging the roof out of the way and charging scrap, fluxes, and carbon from loaded buckets. The furnace has two or three electrodes mounted vertically through the roof of the furnace that float just above the surface of the cold...