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reduced-rake points

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003187
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... lower cutting forces. In fact, advanced chip-control geometries can give negative-rake inserts the force-reducing capabilities of positive-rake designs. Customized chip-control geometries are available for special workpiece materials and operations. THE FORCES in machining can be determined with a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001231
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... chisel edge removes material by extrusion, which is less efficient than cutting and produces higher temperatures. This results in a lower removal rate and, hence, lower productivity. The chisel edge has a high negative rake angle equal to half the point angle (i.e., 59° in standard drills). By grinding a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
.../A Epoxy Two-coat system for corrosion protection Secondary clarifiers Above waterline Steel rake mechanisms and access bridge SSPC-SP 6 Epoxy Epoxy Acrylic polyurethane Weathering exposure Trickling filters Interior Concrete SSPC-SP 13 N/A Blended amine-cured epoxy systems over...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... used in the foundry or die casting industry but have seen wide application in other aluminum melting operations. The dross from large aluminum melters can be treated in place with the proper fluxing action and then raked off periodically from the bath surface for further processing. However, dross must...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... Air entrapped in the jet stream can create considerable noise with some work materials. The noise level increases with standoff distance but can be reduced by using certain fluid additives or certain rake angles. The noise levels are generally below the OSHA requirements. Periodic preventive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... drilling deep holes with twist drills, reduce speed and feed as follows: If hole depth is 3 drill diameters, reduce speed by 10%, feed by 10%; 4 diameters, speed by 20%, feed by 10%; 5 diameters, speed by 30%, feed by 20%; 6 diameters, speed by 35%; feed by 20%; 8 diameters, speed by 40%, feed by 20...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... carbide countersink with an integral pilot having a proper radius is recommended. A rake angle of 10° (±2°) is preferred. Fig. 8 Drilling/reaming cutting tool Fig. 9 Point geometry of drill/reamer cutting tool. A, Web thickness at the point to be 1.5 mm times drill radius. B, Margin width...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... + 5 Fe Tricalcium phosphate is formed in the slag. This slag must then be removed from the furnace to minimize the chance for phosphorus reversion which occurs upon de-oxidation of the melt. This is accomplished by raking off the slag. Limited success is achieved in reducing the phosphorus...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005350
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...-rake arrangement back and forth to stir and skim the molten melt. Compared to other furnace designs, stack furnaces can result in substantial savings from lower fuel consumption and consequently lower melting costs. In the practical foundry operation, for example, with the use of 50...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... The concentrate products from any of the wet concentrating processes require dewatering. The initial step is thickening in a large cylindrical tank. The stream of concentrate and water enters the tank where the mineral particles settle to the bottom, and slowly revolving rakes move the mud-like...
Book Chapter

By David V. Neff
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005353
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... salts, including halides, and become very hygroscopic when exposed to air. In addition, the tools used to add and work in fluxes—rakes, spoons, and so on—will often retain flux and oxide debris after use, which will then adsorb moisture from the air as they cool down. Reuse of these tools, without...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... buffing compounds must produce a high finish and permit the buffing wheel to shed or throw off the small particles of metal and compound that build up during buffing. If a compound does not provide this shedding action, the buildup of particles forms a solid cutting head, requiring the buff to be raked or...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... best and most effective type of slagger is the clamshell type. The skimmer is positioned over the furnace and lowered into the slag. With an automatic raking motion, the jaws of the unit close around the slag, which is then lifted clear of the bath and deposited into a container. The blades are...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... on). Furnace tools, such as skimmers, puddlers, and rakes, can also add solidified oxide skins back into the melt if they are not cleaned before use. Factors that influence the formation of inclusions include: Excessive temperatures during melting accelerate the oxidation of aluminum and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... material, such as carbon. There are three types of thermal reclaiming units: A rotary kiln or calciner, with which the sand is fed into one end and heat is supplied from the other end as the sand moves through the kiln A multiple-hearth vertical furnace, in which the sand is raked across the top...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... rabbling or raking the flux into intimate contact with the dross phase, serves to raise the local temperature, increase fluidity, decrease the surface tension of the oxide skin, and chemically reduce ZnO. Proper fluxing procedures will permit more than half of the entrapped zinc to be recovered, yielding...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... wear in a particular industrial operation is known, there is a possibility of simulating this kind of wear in laboratory tests in order to obviate extensive programs of expensive field trials. The usual starting point in developing a wear classification scheme is to define wear. The following...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... from the decomposition of water. Furnace tools such as rakes, puddlers, skimmers, and shovels can deliver hydrogen to the melt if they are not kept clean. Oxides and flux residues on such tools are particularly insidious sources of contamination because they will absorb moisture directly from the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... injection lance). The spent carbide or lime is raked off or overflows, and the desulfurized metal flows continuously into the holder or duplex electric furnace. Disposal of the carbide slag requires attention to safety and environmental considerations. To control the properties of cast iron, it is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001282
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... threading followed by grit blasting. Rough threading is generally used for cylindrical surfaces and with thick flame sprayed coatings. The part to be prepared is mounted in a lathe and a single thread cut is taken. Tools for this purpose have a 60° to 70° point with a slight negative back rake. Screw feeds...