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redistribution layer

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Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the two extremes of solute redistribution, equilibrium solidification and nonequilibrium Gulliver-Scheil solidification, for which solid redistribution of solute within the primary solid phase is the distinguishing parameter. The process and material parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... direction––from input to output—and the neurons are ordered in layers, with an input set, hidden set(s), and an output set of neurons (input layer, hidden layer(s), and output layer in Fig. 3 ). Most of the NNs for ical studies follow this structure, fully connected and feed-forward. Fig. 3...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Abstract This article reviews the fundamental solidification concepts for understanding microstructural evolution in fusion welds. The common concepts, namely, nucleation, competitive grain growth, constitutional supercooling, solute redistribution, and rapid solidification, depend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... with two additional cylindrical shells that take into account eddy currents in external and internal skin layers of the cold crucible (see Fig. 16 ) Two-dimensional models of the side face of the crucible segment, which are considered for computations of vertical redistribution of eddy currents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002493
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
..., because a layer of coating consists of several successive passes, the effect of any new pass on its adjacent previously deposited pass in terms of partial remelting, additional material buildup, solute diffusion, and redistribution of residual stresses could be important and should be accounted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-dimensional effects associated with load redistribution around flaws and with damage tolerance. The elastic-isotropic geometric stress-concentration factors and empirically established correlation factors of mechanically fastened joints are discussed. The article provides information on the identification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003681
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... of energy or particle beams. Elements may be added to influence the surface characteristics of the substrate by the formation of alloys, metastable alloys or phases, or amorphous layers. Surface-modified layers are distinguished from conversion or coating layers by their greater similarity to metallurgical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... as a result of the cooling effect of the mold wall. As the billet is withdrawn from the bottom of the mold, water jets impinge on the surface, directly cooling it and forming a solid layer around the molten liquid, commonly referred to as the sump. The flow structure in the sump controls the movement of free...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... of β from the melt can occur when a peritectic reaction or peritectic transformation is sluggish, as is often the case. Peritectic reactions can proceed only as long as α-phase and liquid are in contact. The β-solid nucleates at the α/liquid interface, readily forming a layer that isolates α from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... ingot; and velocities in the melt pool and the mushy zone. In the VAR process, consumable electrodes are used to make cylindrical ingots. Hence, in the simulation, new layers of elements are added at the top of the ingot to account for the mass, which enters the liquid pool from the electrode...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006389
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... components. Examples of such failures include wear, corrosion, and so on. In addition to failure prevention, enhancement of functions and performance of components such as friction reduction is another objective of numerous techniques used to modify and engineer the near-surface layer of components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 June 2023
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24A.a0006972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-439-0
... a part from the build substrate results in less residual-stress redistribution and thus less bowing/warping after L-PBF. Laser Directed-Energy Deposition Directed-energy deposition (DED) uses a directed-energy source to melt material feedstock to form a part track by track and layer by layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., ASTM , 2000 , p 918 – 945 3. Iltis X. , Lefebvre F. , and Lemaignan C. , Microstructure Evolutions and Iron Redistribution in Zircaloy Oxide Layers: Comparative Effects of Irradiation Flux and Irradiation Damages , Zirconium in the Nuclear Industry, 11th Intl. Symp. , STP 1295...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002355
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... surface stresses in the surface layer. Besides these macroscopic sources of stress concentration on the surface, there are also microscopic stress concentrators, which are effective even under conditions of ideal uniaxial loading. The stress level at the surface is sensitive to surface topography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ). Stage 1 involves the fracturing of substrate material and crushing of wear debris. The depth of fracturing, which is less than the average grain dimension, is governed by the normal pressure applied. Eventually the layer of debris becomes thick enough to cushion and redistribute the normal stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... to the presence of a very stable passive layer, mainly formed by the alloying element chromium and oxygen from the environment. Unfortunately, many stainless steels suffer from galling, which often leads to expensive materials solutions in applications where stainless steel would otherwise have been the preferred...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001284
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... as optoelectronic devices, such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, and high-efficiency photovoltaic cells. The ability to grow thin, multilayered structures with very fine dimensional and compositional control has made possible quantum-well devices and strained-layer superlattices. The development of devices...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... while keeping the overall material cost as low as possible. Other special applications might require a composite liner with more than two layers of thermal insulation. Figure 1(b) shows that unidirectional heat flow occurs at a steady rate through a wall composed of three different solid layers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... on these minimum specifications will form the desired protective oxide upon initial exposure, but because of the accompanying depletion of the scale-forming element, they will probably be unable to re-form the protective layer in the event of loss or failure of the initial scale. Fig. 6 Variation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and nitrocarburizing of iron-base materials with gaseous processes. It describes nitriding potentials and the Lehrer diagram, carburizing potentials, controlled nitriding and nitrocarburizing, and the microstructural evolution of the compound layer and the diffusion zone. carburizing iron-nitrogen phase diagram...