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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract The Mossbauer effect (ME) is a spectroscopic method for observing nuclear gamma-ray fluorescence using the recoil-free transitions of a nucleus embedded in a solid lattice. This article provides an overview of the fundamental principles of ME, covering recoil-free fraction, absorption...
Book Chapter

By Donald M. Mattox
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... flaw generation, energy input to the growing film, surface mobility of the depositing adatoms, growth morphology of the film (i.e., roughness), gas entrapment, reaction with deposition ambient (including reactive deposition processes), lattice defects produced, grain size and orientation, recoil...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in a rotary shearing machine, for production of a perpendicular edge Slitting is accomplished by passing the strip between slightly overlapping circular blades mounted on rotating arbors. A slitting line consists of an uncoiler to hold the coil, one or more slitters, and a recoiler for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006677
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Going beyond the elemental ion species, there are polyatomic ion sources under active development. While they do not offer extremely high brightness and hence the small probe size necessary for FIB, there is increasing usage of cluster ion sources ( Ref 26 , 27 ) such as C 60 , (H 2 O) 5000 , Ar 1500...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... deposition process proceeds or be modified by postdeposition treatments. Interfacial regions are categorized as ( Ref 26 ): Abrupt Mechanical (specific type of the abrupt interface) Diffusion Compound (also requires diffusion) Pseudodiffusion (physical mixing, ion implantation, recoil...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... metal substrates. E r is the energy of the electron recoil caused by a 3 MeV proton on carbon. Source: Ref 5 Approximately two-thirds of all PIXE analyses, standard or proton microprobe, operate with protons between 2 and 4 MeV, although energies as low as 0. 15 MeV or as high as 50 MeV can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... materials in which particles can serve as scattering centers. There are at least three mechanisms associated with formation of surface particulates: subsurface boiling ( Ref 50 ), shock wave recoil ( Ref 51 ), and exfoliation ( Ref 52 ). Subsurface boiling occurs when the required heat transfer time is less...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001301
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... + Sputtering + Sputtering + Sputtering No Yes Yes Main usage Element surface and thin-film analysis Chemical state analysis Topmost layer analysis Nondestructive thin-film analysis Dopant profiles Rapid thin-film analysis AES, Auger electron spectroscopy; ERD, elastic recoil detection; GDOES...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... cold drawing of rod and wire, as well as small-diameter tubing, are generally designed so that the products can be uncoiled and then recoiled after drawing. On multiple-die continuous machines, uncoiling, drawing, and recoiling are repeated at successive stations. Rod coils, when ready for processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006637
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... backscattering situation. The projectile of atomic mass m and energy E 0 collides with a stationary target atom of atomic mass M 2 ( M 2 > m ). The projectile then backscatters with a scattering angle θ, and its energy becomes E 1 . The target atom recoils forward. Fig. 1 Collision...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Required magnetizing field Permeance coefficient at ( BH ) max Average recoil permeability, G/Oe kA · m −1 Oe kA · m −1 Oe T kG T kG kJ · m −3 MG · Oe T kG kA · m −1 Oe kA · m −1 kOe 3 1 2 % Cr steel 5.3 66 … … 0.95 9.5 … … 2.3 0.29...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... atomic displacements in the collision cascades, enhanced surface and bulk diffusion, recoil implantation, and ion mixing mechanisms ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). Information on the densification of metal films is sparse and gives a mixed picture of whether or not IBAD causes densification. Gold films were found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...), laser beam emission ranges from ultraviolet to infrared wavelengths (191 to 10,600 nm). Depending on the active medium used and its physical characteristics, industrial lasers are classified by the type of active medium: solid state, gas, and liquid ( Table 2 , Ref 2 ). Lasers are used in several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., only the bound coherent cross section is relevant, because it pertains to regimes where atoms are bound in a condensed phase with a binding energy much higher than the one of the incident neutrons; thus, any bond breaking or recoil effects from the scattering process are negligible. For very high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... from the laser spot on the surface (sketched in Fig. 6 ). On the opposite surface of a platelike sample, one first observes a surface elevation spike of duration on the order of the laser pulse duration, which is associated with the recoil effect produced by the matter blown off of the surface. This...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006683
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... primary ion bombardment: implantation and sputtering Sputtering, or ejection, of target atoms and molecules occurs because much of the momentum transfer is redirected toward the surface by the recoil of the target atoms within the collision cascade. Because the lifetime of the collision cascade...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... section on steelmaking). Oxygen potential in the system affects the distribution of all the elements that partition themselves between the metal and the slag. Oxygen potentials favorable for sulfur control in hot metal are unsuitable for silicon and manganese removal. For a given carbon activity and...