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real-time radiography

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Digital radiography is a technique that uses digital detector arrays (linear or area) to capture an X-ray photonic signal and convert it to an electronic signal for display on a computer. This article begins with an overview of real-time radiography and provides a schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of performance characteristics for film radiography, real-time radiography, and X-ray computed tomography is presented in a table. A functional block diagram of a typical computed tomography system is provided. The article discusses CT scanning geometry that is used to acquire the necessary transmission data...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... components, whereas other methods are limited in ability to inspect semiconductor devices. Sensitivity of x-ray radiography, real-time x-ray methods, and gamma-ray radiography to various types of flaws depends on many factors, including type of material, type of flaw, and product form. (Type of material...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005218
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... alloys, combining in situ real-time radiography and semistatic tomography ( Ref 36 ), thus yielding information on the temporal evolution of the system by radiography and snapshots of the three-dimensional microstructure at discrete processing times by tomography. Other efforts have been made to combine...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with the radiation, that is, conversion of radiation into a form suitable for observation or further signal processing. This conversion is accomplished with either a recording medium (usually film), a real-time imaging medium (such as fluorescent screens or scintillation crystals), computed radiography, digital...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., composites, virtually any nonporous surface Laser/dimensional metrology photogrammetry, laser total station, laser tracker, coordinate measurement machines Either angle/angle stereo image or angle/time-of-flight allows measurement of surface profile of the object. Reverse engineering, dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Film radiography requires the development of the exposed film so that the latent image becomes visible for viewing. It describes the general characteristics of film, including speed, gradient, and graininess, and the factors affecting film selection and exposure time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... defect along the advancing side of the weld. Courtesy of GE Because the size of flaws in diffusion bonding is determined by the scale of roughness and contaminations of the surfaces being bonded, both flatness and cleanliness influence the bond quality. Real-time radiography, coupled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the weld. Courtesy of GE Because the size of flaws in diffusion bonding is determined by the scale of roughness and contaminations of the surfaces being bonded, both flatness and cleanliness influence the bond quality. Real-time radiography, coupled with a microfocus x-ray source and digital image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003431
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... computer-generated models to dictate radii, control surface geometry, and streamline complex surface contouring. This technology is integrated with numerical-controlled equipment to make tools much faster than conventional methods, as well as real-time inspection capability. Process operators...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... ultrasonic inspection internal visual inspection non-invasive inspection HUGE AMOUNTS OF TIME AND MONEY ARE INVESTED in designing, constructing, commissioning, and operating major petroleum and petrochemical installations. To safeguard this investment and to ensure adequate prevention of adverse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... with the application of low-gravity platforms and facilities for solidification processing. It provides a description of dendritic growth studies and electromagnetic levitation. The article concludes with information on the in situ and real-time monitoring of solidification processing. casting metals and alloys...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the bottom, part of the wave is reflected back to the source, and part is transmitted to the environment. By sensing the magnitude of these reflections and the time in between them, one can get a fair idea of the presence of a defect in the cross section as well as its location relative to the thickness...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006453
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of the infrared (IR) camera, which introduced a real-time, image-based, noncontact approach to temperature measurement—a welcome alternative to point temperature sensors attached to the surface of the part, or temperature-sensitive paints or tapes that had been used previously. In TNDE, applied external...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... for multiphase pipelines. The article reviews methodologies to perform internal corrosion direct assessment for pipelines. Real-time monitoring techniques for assessing actual corrosion at critical locations are discussed. The article also presents the case studies for multi-technique electrochemical corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... Real-time imaging techniques have considerably improved the process and made possible rapid testing and immediate acceptance or rejection of parts. Real-time x-ray systems include image intensifiers or screens that convert x-rays into visible light and discrete detector arrays that convert x-rays...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... are inspected immediately after the adhesive cure cycle, after the parts have been cleaned and removed from the manufacturing jigs or fixtures. The next important time for inspection is after the assemblies have been in use and the condition of the parts is known. It is necessary to determine if new...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... it can take 20 min to develop a radiograph that can be viewed, radioscopy offers images in real time. The images are created on x-ray-sensitive screens that can be intensified and scanned with a camera for visual display. However, screen resolution and contrast are not as high as with film radiography...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... manufactured when designed for the casting process. One reason that castings are seen as problems is because the foundry is often asked to make poor designs successful, and so the lead time is long and the cost is high. Good casting design allows weight to be reduced, cost to be lowered, and performance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... complex parts without active focus control. Real composite surfaces do not behave as diffuse targets but instead are mixtures of diffuse and specular (mirrorlike) properties. Specular surfaces can be several times brighter than a perfect diffuse reflector on-axis and then quickly drop off by a factor...