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reactive evaporation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract This article discusses the fundamentals of thermal vaporization and condensation and provides information on the various vaporization sources and methods of vacuum deposition. It offers an overview of reactive evaporation and its deposition techniques. The article also explains the...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... Abstract This article focuses on the machining of reactive metals which refer collectively to the elements titanium, hafnium, and zirconium. It provides guidelines for machining titanium and titanium alloys and describes machining operations, such as turning, milling, drilling, tapping, reaming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... coating applications commonly use water-reducible technology. After heating in a baking oven, the water evaporates, and the reactive moieties come together and react at the elevated baking temperature. Water in the coating must evaporate prior to cross linking. This is done by having a longer flash-off...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Field ion microscopy (FIM) can be used to study the three-dimensional structure of materials, such as metals and semiconductors, because successive atom layers can be ionized and removed from the surface by field evaporation. The ions removed from the surface by field evaporation can...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... properties selection for the simulation of casting processes. The measurements of thermophysical property are difficult due to high temperatures and the reactivity of some alloys. The article discusses strategies adopted to minimize the effects of high temperatures and the reactivity of alloys. It presents...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003219
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... temperature; ARE, activated reactive evaporation; T m , absolute melting temperature. (a) Compounds: oxides, nitrides, carbides, silicides, and borides of Al, B, Cr, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Re, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr Originally PVD was used to deposit single metal elements by transport of a vapor in a...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation , p 556 – 572 • Pierson H.O. , Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nonsemiconductor Materials , p 510 – 516 • Razeghi M. , Chemical Vapor Deposition of Semiconductor Materials , p 517 – 531 • Rohde S.L. , Sputter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., when compared with similar films prepared by PVD without ion bombardment. When the ion beam or the evaporant is a reactive species, compounds such as refractory silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) can be synthesized at very low temperatures. Furthermore, adjustment of the ratio of reactive ions to atoms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... 110 975 10 5 Copper pickup on ball (a) Chromium oxide from Source 1. (b) Chromium oxide from Source 2. Source: Ref 16 Hard coatings such as TiC, TiN, and Ti 2 N deposited on titanium disks by activated reactive evaporation (ARE) have been evaluated against different mating rider...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003373
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... precursors, namely, thermoplastic, thermosetting, and evaporative or solvent carriers. It provides a description of the advantages and limitations of various methods involved in chemical vapor infiltration. The article concludes with a discussion on the matrix contribution to composite properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006561
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... temperature measurement, unvented cavities, loose powder, and direct contact of metals in the high-temperature vacuum. The article provides a short discussion on sintering and evaporation of metals in vacuum furnaces. additive manufacturing aging sintering solid-solution annealing solution treating...
Book Chapter

By S.L. Rohde
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001288
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Evaporation and Unbalanced-Magnetron Sputtering , Surf. Coat. Technol. , Vol 49 , 1991 , p 161 – 167 10.1016/0257-8972(91)90049-3 88. Kadlec S. , Musil J. , Valvoda V. , Münz W.-D. , Petersein H. , and Schroeder J. , TiN Films Grown by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... molds, namely, ceramic shells and rammed graphite, for casting reactive metals such as titanium or zirconium. ceramic shells coremaking green sand operations titanium zirconium clay resin-bonded sand systems no-bake binder systems heat-cured binder systems cold box binder systems rammed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005434
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... reactive or ion beam etching. vapor-phase process vapor-surface interaction hetereogeneous process homogenous reaction chemical vapor deposition numerical simulation molecular modeling multiscale simulation sputtering deposition ion beam etching VAPOR-PHASE PROCESSES (VPP) involve the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract Zirconium, hafnium, and their alloys are reactive metals used in a variety of nuclear and chemical processing applications. This article describes various specimen preparation procedures for these materials, including sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing, and etching. It reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... drop of known mass Handles reactive materials because there is no container. Large temperature range of superheat and undercooling. Short run times to high temperatures Large surface area maximizes evaporation and gas reactions. Oxides can distort shape, may prevent surface tension measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0005586
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... austenite on cooling ARE activated reactive evaporation ARIP activated reactive ion plating ARP Aerospace Recommended Practice ASLE American Society of Lubrication Engineers (former name of STLE) ASM American Society for Metals (now ASM International) ASME American...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... reactive atomistic film deposition. The simplest way is to thermally evaporate the material in a partial pressure of a reactive gas in the process called reactive evaporation (see the article “Vacuum Deposition, Reactive Evaporation, and Gas Evaporation” in this Volume). This generally gives poor...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005707
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... reactive sputtering thermal spray coating wear COATINGS AND OTHER SURFACE MODIFICATIONS are used for a variety of functional, economic, and aesthetic purposes. For example, thermal spray and weld-overlay tungsten carbide-base coatings are used to prevent excessive wear in heavy industry, agricultural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001291
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... electrode material, or macroparticles. Macroparticle formation and the approaches used for removal are described in Ref 1 , 2 , and 3 . Due to the ion charge state, vapor produced by vacuum arc techniques is typically more reactive than that produced using evaporative or sputter techniques. This...