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reaction melting

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003173
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., furnace types, charging practices of metal melting methods, namely induction melting, cupola melting, arc melting, crucible melting, reaction melting, and vacuum melting, and the refractories and charging practice of reverberatory furnaces. Molten metal treatment of steels and aluminum also is discussed...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... furnace melting. The crucible material has an extraordinary effect on the metal/slag reaction because the ceramic outer wall reacts with the liquid metal and with the slag. In a VIM furnace, slag would be transported to the crucible wall by the characteristic bath movement. The result is that the slag...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... and uses the exothermic reaction to assist in melting and superheating the metal. This is referred to as supplying chemical energy to the furnace. In some instances, different forms of oxyfuels are used to provide additional energy to speed up the melting process. Although refractories line the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... characteristics of electron beam melting and casting technology are: The flexibility and controllability of the process temperature, speed, and reaction The use of a wide variety of feedstock materials in terms of material quality, size, and shape The different methods of material processing available...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005197
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... handling of the charge materials. S.F. Carter, Melting Furnaces: Cupolas, Casting , Vol 15, ASM Handbook , ASM International, 1988, p 383–392. Preheated air blast was found to improve efficiency of the combustion reaction by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
...) Peritectic reaction α + liquid → β and peritectoid reaction α + β → γ. (b) Peritectic formation of intermetallic phases from a high-melting intermetallic. (c) Peritectic cascade between high- and low-melting components. Adapted from Ref 1 Figure 3 shows a phase diagram with a peritectic reaction...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005193
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the melt, and the chemical reaction is: 2 Al _ + 3 O _ → Al 2 O 3 ( s ) where the underlined indicates the elements to be dilute and dissolved in iron while the (s) indicates that Al 2 O 3 is solid at 1600 °C (2910 °F). (The melting point of Al 2 O 3 is 2072 °C...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... are usually incompletely reacted and thus lead to hydrogen absorption and potential steam reaction (see the section “Degassing of Copper Alloys” in this article). The oxidizing fluxes usually include cupric oxide or manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ), which decompose at copper alloy melting temperatures to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., discontinuously reinforced composites and continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. Processing methods include cold pressing, sintering, hot pressing, reaction bonding, melt infiltration, directed metal oxidation, sol-gel and polymer pyrolysis, self-propagating high-temperature synthesis and joining. A table...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... addition to information on the mechanical and chemical properties of zirconium castings. Zirconium has a melting point of 1852 °C (3365 °F). It reacts vigorously with interstitial elements (e.g., hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon) at elevated temperatures. This reaction begins to...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... melting to attain better fluidity of the molten steel. The producer of ingots for rolling is less concerned with fluidity because mold filling is simpler in ingot molds than in the molds used for producing relatively complex shapes. Charging and refining reactions are described in this section. More...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... surrounding atmosphere or introduced into the melt when corroded materials are charged or damp fluxes are used. Magnesium and its alloys readily absorb hydrogen by the reaction with water vapor: (Eq 32) Mg ( l ) + H 2 O ( v ) → MgO ( s ) + H 2 ( in   Mg ) The standard...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... applications of adhesive bonding. It discusses the types of adhesives, namely, epoxy adhesives, epoxy-phenolic adhesives, condensation-reaction PI adhesives, addition-reaction PI adhesives, bismaleimide adhesives, and structural adhesives. The article provides information on fastener selection considerations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article describes the allotropic modification and atmospheric corrosion of pure tin. Corrosion of pure tin due to oxidation reaction, and reaction with the other gases, water, acids, bases, and other liquid media, is discussed. The article provides information on corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005412
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... parameter, such as shear modulus, bonding energy, and transformations, for prediction of interface structures. It provides information on the application of the atomistic modeling of interface structure to predict interface reaction mechanisms. localization parameter interface structures interface...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005285
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the risk of ignition of the drosses, with spontaneous burning of the aluminum metal (called thermiting), causing potentially catastrophic results. If allowed to continue, temperatures attained during these reactions will exceed 1650 °C (3000 °F) and can result in melting of furnace refractories and...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... can lower sulfur values to below 0.005%. The gas contents approach or may be even lower than those of vacuum induction melted steel. The dilution of oxygen with inert gas, argon, or nitrogen causes the carbon-oxygen reaction to go to completion in favor of the oxidation reaction of iron and the...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... solidification. Directional solidification of the ingot from bottom to top avoids macrosegregation and minimizes microsegregation. Oxide inclusion removal is optimized because of the relatively short reaction paths during melting of the hot electrode end and because of good drop dispersion in the plasma arc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003841
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the corrosion theory relating to refractories on the basis of acid/base reactions, thermodynamics, and kinetic considerations. The tests to evaluate refractory corrosive wear are reviewed. The article describes the specific refractories used in...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... composition of the remaining liquid phase changes continuously and uniformly from the initial melt composition, C O , and the composition of the primary solid phase changes from kC O . Solidification is not complete until an invariant reaction, such as the melting point or a eutectic, is reached. The...