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ratcheting

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 19
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1996
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v19.a0002391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-193-1
... damage (grain-boundary triple points) in tensile stress part of the cycle Higher dislocation density compared to IF Mixture of dislocation arrangements compared to IF High density of intergranular cracks Higher grain-boundary sliding in tension relative to compression, resulting in ratcheting...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The article summarizes the general process of distortion failure analysis. It also discusses three types of distortion failures that provide useful insights into the problems of analyzing unusual mechanisms of distortion. These include elastic distortion, ratcheting, and inelastic cyclic buckling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... can parallel those of metals in many circumstances: relatively flat and smooth fracture, ratchet marks, and overload region. Beach marks are far less common with polymers. While metallic materials readily display crack-arrest lines created by oxidation or crevice corrosion, polymers generally do...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fatigue of structural polymers can parallel those of metals in many circumstances: relatively flat fracture, beach marks, and ratchet marks. Because most polymers are not electrically conductive, they must be coated with a thin conductive layer, such as carbon or a metal, to allow examination using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., macroscopic evidence indicating the nature and type of fatigue loading (beach marks, ratchet marks, etc.) may provide useful evidence to the analyst. The ultimate purpose of fractography and the other methods of failure analysis is the determination of the (technical) root cause of failure, which may...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). 3× Fatigue Marks The formation of cracks under conditions of repeated or cyclic stress has been denoted as fatigue cracking. Zones of crack propagation on fatigue fractures exhibit several types of surface marks, such as beach marks, striations, and ratchet marks. Beach Marks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... ratchet marks and beachmarks. Ratchet marks are formed by the initiation of multiple cracks that eventually grow together (to reduce surface energy). The steps formed between the cracks while they are on separate planes are the ratchet marks ( Fig. 11 ). Because ratchet marks require multiple initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... center of radius of curvature Curvature may reverse on cylindrical sections as crack propagates (see Fig. 40 ) Ratchet marks More likely in cyclic loading Indicates initiation site(s) (see Fig. 40 , 41 ) Adjacent surface and or fracture surface discoloration May indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... in a shaft of AISI 1040 steel with a hardness of approximately 30 HRC. The shaft was fractured when subjected to rotating bending. The oval shape of the central region of final fast fracture indicates that two mutually perpendicular, unequal bending stresses were present. The ratchet marks around...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006323
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... initiation. Other characteristic features that can be found on fatigue fractures are ratchet marks. These appear when multiple cracks initiate at different sites. As adjacent cracks grow, they may start to overlap and eventually join into a single crack. When this happens, the small ligaments between...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003226
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and ratchet marks. Fractures originate from a broad variety of discontinuities within the metal structure, such as laps and seams from primary metal forming, shrinkage and gas cavities in cast structures, hot tears, inclusions, segregation of impurities, and imperfections in welds. Many...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... part caused by SCC. Tensile strength of the steel was approximately 1780 to 1900 MPa (260 to 280 ksi). The beach marks are a result of differences in the rate of penetration of corrosion on the surface. They are in no way related to fatigue marks. 4× Ratchet marks are macroscopic features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... as with the loading and environmental conditions. Fig. 19 Macroscopic view of fatigue fracture in a bending-loaded bolt. CO, crack origin; RM, ratchet marks; BM, beach marks; FF, final fracture Of special importance is the detection and characterization of the fatigue crack origin, because often tiny...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003399
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000611
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... at an internal fillet at a shoulder between the smooth bore ( Fig. 710 ) and the internal spline ( Fig. 711 ). Figures 712 shows clearly the inner fatigue zone and the outer zone of final tensile-shear fracture. The ratchet marks visible in Fig. 710 (at the bore) are shown more clearly in Fig. 712 , a view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003427
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... over a sufficient area so that the compressive strength of the resin system is not exceeded and the composite crushed. The role played by high clamp-up produces friction load transfer and delays cocking of the fastener in a loaded joint, which in turn may reduce ratcheting during cyclic loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... , Han J. , Marimuthu K.P. , and Lee H. , Determination of Chaboche Combined Hardening Parameters with Dual Backstress for Ratcheting Evaluation of AISI 52100 Bearing Steel , Int. J. Fatigue , Vol 122 , 2019 , p 152 – 163 10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2019.01.009 26. Hahn G.T...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... undesirable creep or plasticity ratcheting strains. The maximum cyclic rates during TMF cycling are typically quite low due to the relatively low rate at which temperatures of test samples can be changed in a controlled manner. Due to the relatively long testing time per cycle for ICF and TMF tests, and due...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005405
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... ). Of course, classical to-and-fro slip is not responsible for all crack formation and propagation mechanisms at the microstructure scale. Cyclic plastic strain behavior is generally classified into three regimes: elastic shakedown, reversed cyclic plasticity, and plastic ratcheting ( Ref 45 , 50...