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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Abrasive finishing is a method where a large number of multipoint or random cutting edges are coupled with abrasive grains as a bond or matrix material for effective removal of material at smaller chip sizes. This article provides a broad overview of the various categories of abrasive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... to minimize the effects of surface flaws and the random errors they produce on workability data. Unlike the simple upset and grooved-upset tests, the truncated-cone test involves indentation by a conical tool of a cylindrical specimen whose initial diameter is greater than that of the truncation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005413
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., stage IV work hardening, and the various classes of single-phase alloys. internal-state variable modeling plastic flow stress-strain behavior polycrystal modeling face-centered cubic metals strain rate diffusion hexagonal metals work hardening IF AN ABSOLUTELY PERFECT SINGLE CRYSTAL...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article provides an overview of common quenching media, the factors involved in the mechanism of quenching, and process variables, namely, surface condition, mass and section size of the workpiece, and flow rate of the quenching liquid. It describes the methods of quenchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... discussed later in the article. First, the basics of the model are discussed. Fig. 2 Microstructural evolution of an initially random distribution of spins on a two-dimensional square lattice using the Potts model, periodic boundary conditions, metropolis spin dynamics, and kT s = 0.5. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... based models. For flow stress, the distinction between mobile and immobile dislocations inside subgrains and immobile dislocations in subgrain boundaries ( Fig. 15 ) may be essential. For stored energy or recrystallization the distinction between “statistically stored” or “random” dislocations, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... variables that should be considered when selecting standard reference blocks and describes the three types of standard blocks ordinarily used for calibration or reference: area-amplitude blocks, distance-amplitude blocks, and blocks of the type sanctioned by the International Institute of Welding. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... subsequent arcing, small craters are formed on the ends of the abutting surfaces. The pieces are steadily advanced toward one another, and other short circuits are formed and additional molten metal is expelled. This process continues as random melting, arcing, and expulsion occur over the entire cross...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... rolling, lubricated with a mineral oil, are obtained when the roughness direction is random. Fig. 13 Influence of surface roughness on roll forces for different reductions. Note that the roll separating force increases with reduction at a much lower rate when the roll surface direction is random...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... hard anodic process. It describes the limitations imposed by variables, such as alloy composition, surface finish, prior processing, temper or heat treatment, and the use of inserts, on the anodizing processes. The article explains the causes and means adopted for correcting several specific problems...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005799
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... tend to attract interstitially diffusing carbon atoms ( Fig. 4c ). Such deviations from randomness impede carbon long-range diffusion in the matrix and decrease the overall rate of carbon diffusion. Austenite-stabilizing elements (nickel, copper, etc.) exhibit negative atomic interactions and tend to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a description of the comminution process (wet and dry milling methods), it discusses batching and mixing operations and granulation methods. The article also deals with the effect of process variables and the steps involved in chemical synthesis, including preparation from solution and gas-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...-world problems, accounting for material properties, environmental variables, boundary and state conditions, and the primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. The article also includes reference data and provides closed-form solutions for common heat-transfer applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., environmental variables, boundary and state conditions, and the primary modes of heat transfer: conduction, convection, and radiation. heat-transfer equations boundary condition heat conduction momentum transfer heat radiation convection heat transfer heat transfer modes HEAT TRANSFER is energy...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003206
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... information on process capabilities, principles of operation, power sources, electrodes, shielding gases, flux, process variables, and advantages and disadvantages of these arc welding methods. It presents information about the arc welding procedures of hardenable carbon and alloy steels, cast irons...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003088
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... number of components of a particular design is a random variable, and the nature of this random variable often changes with time. The imposed service condition for these components is also a random variable; it too can change with time. The intersection of these two random variables at any point in time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006463
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... major variables follows: Inspection hardware: The hardware was fixed. Instruments were taken at random from the available instruments at the test sites. Inspection technique: The technique was fixed. The inspectors recorded the percent screen height for any indication found during the test...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... at a hot spot Apparent randomness in appearance Highly alloy-specific The mechanism of hot tearing has been extensively investigated; see the overviews by Sigworth ( Ref 8 ) and Eskin et al. ( Ref 9 ). It is commonly believed that hot tears start to develop in the mushy zone at solid...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.9781627081948
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... of a fracture surface are usually preferentially, rather than randomly, oriented. This presents a difficult sampling problem if the stereological relationships based on random sampling and measurements are to be used. For example, to determine the spatial angular distribution of facets, a prohibitive...