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rain erosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman ( Ref 2 ) in the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... processes include droplet impingement, solid-particle impingement, and cavitation erosion. Droplet erosion can occur in steam turbines when steam condensate forms droplets, or it can occur, for example, when supersonic aircraft encounter a rain field. At Mach 1, a rain droplet can be almost like a metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... occasional. Acid rain, which often has a pH of 4 to 4.5, can etch concrete slightly, usually without affecting the performance of the exposed surface. Acids react with the calcium hydroxide of the hydrated portland cement. In most cases, the chemical reaction forms water-soluble calcium compounds, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001303
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; occasional condensation, wear, and abrasion) 8 0.3 None … Clear 12–24 Iridescent 24–72 Olive drab 72–100 Severe (exposure to condensation; infrequent wetting by rain; and cleaners) 13 0.5 None … Clear 12–24 Iridescent 24–72 Olive drab 72–100 Very severe (exposure to bold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article focuses on the various forms of corrosion occurred in the passive range of aluminum and its alloys, namely, pitting corrosion, galvanic corrosion, deposition corrosion, intergranular corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, exfoliation corrosion, corrosion fatigue, erosion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...; turbine engine disks, blades and housings, rain erosion boards, landing legs, wing frames, missile cladding, and fuel containers in the aircraft and aerospace industries; shape memory alloys; biomedical fixtures and implants; corrosion-resistant claddings Refractory metals, EB melting and PM...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... (or cavitation erosion). Erosive wear involves the cumulative effects of many particles striking a surface. These particles can be solids, liquid droplets (e.g., rain), collapsing bubbles, or solid-liquid mixtures called slurries. Electric sparks can also cause erosion, as in the opening and closing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
..., lakes, and rivers, condenses from the atmosphere as dew, and falls as precipitation in the form of rain or snow. Water in vapor form is always in the air to some degree, as humidity. Any material used in exterior environments, including coatings, must be resistant to the effects of water. Water, in...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003067
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and is not subject to damage by freeze-thaw cycles. It is less susceptible to damage by acids and alkali than granite, so it is a desirable substitute in areas where severe pollution or acid rains exist. A comparison of the properties of the glass-ceramic material to those of marble and granite is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006031
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... long periods of time in most outdoor environments, sometimes up to 40 years. Extreme ultraviolet (UV) light, humidity, smog, acid rain, industrial gases, and other airborne hazards have little effect on the metal structures coated with these finishes, provided formulators develop their coatings from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... effects of rain, sunlight, wind, heat, cold, humidity, and oxygen in various combinations and cycles and still retain their integrity and often their aesthetic qualities. Some coatings, such as those applied to ships, also must be resistant to abrasion, in the case of cargo hold coatings, and cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003844
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... environments and in deicing salts), and sulfates (from acid rains) are notorious for causing osmotic blistering of coatings in immersion service and accelerated rates of corrosion in atmospheric service if they are allowed to remain on a substrate before painting or between coats of paint. Once water enters...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... are much less severe in alkaline solutions in which their solubility is low. Copper ions most commonly cause this type of corrosion in applications of aluminum. For example, rain runoff from copper roof flashing can cause corrosion of aluminum gutters with no electrical contact between the two...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003049
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... domes are components that transmit well in the infrared and are used to protect infrared sensors. In addition to transmission in the infrared, these materials must be resistant to erosion from dust and rain and have good thermal shock resistance. The materials used can be either single crystals (ZnS...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... and erosion. The usefulness of this method is severely limited by many restrictions and qualifications, some of which are described above. Generally, this method is not used in the material specifications, and it will not permit conclusions to be drawn concerning the relative arc-resistance ranking...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... developed a normal protective layer of corrosion products are seldom attacked. Wet storage stain is best avoided by preventing newly galvanized surfaces from coming into contact with rain or condensate water during storage and transport. Materials stored outdoors should be arranged so that water can...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... marine atmospheres or in industrial exposures where surfaces become contaminated with chloride salts. Rusting is most likely to be severe on sheltered surfaces that are not well washed by rain. Although marine environments can be severe, stainless steels often provide good resistance. Table 3...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003105
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... precipitation such as rain or snow, fresh water includes well water, treated potable water, and various process waters that can or cannot be treated and can or cannot contain higher levels of contaminants than the natural waters from which they were derived. Data on the useful life of mild steel in contact with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... samples in China in two environments. In the first environment, samples were mounted at 45° outdoors facing south. In the second, the racks were sheltered from solar radiation, wind, and rain. Recommendations based on 58 months of testing were that matte tin coatings 25 μm (1 mil) thick should not be...