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rain erosion

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Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 2 Rain erosion effects on a Maverick missile dome made of coated zinc sulfide that was exposed for 10 s at a speed of approximately 210 m/s (690 ft/s). The dome itself suffered catastrophic damage, and erosion is also seen on the filled elastomeric mounting ring. Courtesy of G.F. Schmitt More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... of the distinctions between the different forms of erosion. It discusses steam turbine blade erosion, aircraft rain erosion, and rain erosion of wind turbine blades. The article describes the mechanisms of liquid impact erosion and time dependence of erosion rate. It reviews critical empirical observations regarding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such as rain erosion of solid materials, gas turbine blades, wind turbine blades, airplane components, and pipe-wall thinning in nuclear/fossil power plants. Because of the fundamental interest in the mechanics of fluids and solids, this topic has been reviewed by Heymann ( Ref 1 ) and Richman ( Ref 2...
Image
Published: 31 December 2017
Fig. 1 Liquid impingement erosion on the leading edge of a blade, caused by droplets of rain. (a) Scanning electron microscopy image showing a section cut from an ex-service blade. (b) Optical profilometry image. Normally, such erosion does not impair the function of the blade. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... these sealants provide corrosion protection by the formation of a relatively impermeable barrier, some sealants also contain strontium chromate for corrosion inhibition. A detailed discussion of this technology can be found in Ref 25 and 26 . Rain-Erosion Coatings Rain droplets and airborne debris...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... , and Rieger H. , “Rain and Sand Erosion, Phenomena of Material Destruction Caused by Repeated Loads,” STP 474, Characterization and Determination of Erosion Resistance , ASTM , 1970 , p 353 – 375 10. Morrow J.D. , “Cyclic Plastic Strain Energy and the Fatigue of Metals,” STP 378...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or corrosion. Important erosion processes include droplet impingement, solid-particle impingement, and cavitation erosion. Droplet erosion can occur in steam turbines when steam condensate forms droplets, or it can occur, for example, when supersonic aircraft encounter a rain field. At Mach 1, a rain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Typically in these sites, the atmosphere may be contaminated by SO 2 , which can be converted to H 2 SO 3 and then to H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) in the presence of moist air. When this occurs in the atmosphere, acid rain is formed, which is a severe environment for metal structures. The movement...
Book Chapter

By Peter J. Blau
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... particles striking a surface. These particles can be solids, liquid droplets (e.g., rain), collapsing bubbles, or solid-liquid mixtures called slurries. Electric sparks can also cause erosion, as in the opening and closing of electrical contacts carrying high currents. Cavitation or cavitation-erosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006073
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... and two hydrogen atoms. Both the weight and size of this molecule is small relative to virtually all other molecules commonly encountered in an environment. Water in liquid form comprises oceans, lakes, and rivers, condenses from the atmosphere as dew, and falls as precipitation in the form of rain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... materials selection pitting corrosion pollution control power plant acid attack AIR POLLUTION is a world-wide concern that can adversely affect the environment, structures, and human health. It is a major contributor to acid rain, which occurs as a result of sulfur oxide emissions being converted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004152
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., including erosion-corrosion, galvanic corrosion, and pitting corrosion. It discusses the types of deaerators and deals with their corrosion problems. The article provides a discussion on two types of feedwater heaters: channel feedwater heaters and header feedwater heaters. It summarizes the corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... into four major categories: Base-metal defects Base-metal strength deficiencies Failures introduced during fabrication Defects caused by abrasion, cavitation, corrosion, or erosion Base-Metal Defects During or subsequent to fabrication, defects in the base metal may be detected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... ( Fig. 5 ). The damage occurs in flight as a result of air, rain, and/or grit impingement on the surface. Damage levels range from removal of coating to stripping of complete laminate surface plies. Fig. 5 Laminate edge erosion Delaminations and Disbonds Delaminations and disbonds can...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... alloys Zirconium Getter material in tubes in the electronics industry; fuel claddings, fasteners, and fixtures for nuclear reactors Titanium Components for bleaching equipment and desalination plants in the chemical industry; superconductive wires; turbine engine disks, blades and housings, rain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... increases, adverse metallurgical reactions, erosion, and fixturing concerns are amplified. For example, nickel-containing alloys have resulted in brittle joints in both tungsten and molybdenum brazing, because of intermetallic formation. This brittleness can be minimized by short brazing cycles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... be routine, they add up to significant resources, such as for paint, erosion, sealant, or minor wet lay- up repairs. The total maintenance life cycle includes not only the scheduled maintenance and inspection cycles, but also the daily walk- arounds, the shop repairs, repairs on-wing, and unscheduled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... phenomena such as temperatures and humidity, falling rain, severe winds, impurities in the atmosphere, and the ultraviolet light and heat of the sun. Under such conditions, either mechanically, by roughening and cracking, or chemically, by the loss of relatively soluble components and by the reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004138
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
...-current, fretting fatigue, erosion-corrosion, cavitation, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), and microbiologically influenced corrosion. Consult the next article “Corrosion in Workboats and Recreational Boats” in this Volume for more detailed information on boating corrosion issues. These include...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in alkaline solutions in which their solubility is low. Copper ions most commonly cause this type of corrosion in applications of aluminum. For example, rain runoff from copper roof flashing can cause corrosion of aluminum gutters with no electrical contact between the two metals. Very small amounts...