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radiographic sensitivity

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Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 2 Spectral-sensitivity curves for a radiographic film showing exposure required to produce a density of 1.0 More
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 11 Spectral-sensitivity curves for a type 4 radiographic film, showing exposure required to produce a density of 1.0 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... screens. radiography radiation dosage monitoring personnel protection X-ray tube recording media lead screens lead oxide screens fluorescent intensifying screens radiation safety image conversion scattered radiation control radiographic sensitivity RADIOGRAPHY is the process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiographic contrast by intensifying the conversion of radiation and by filtering the lower energy radiation produced by scattering. Permanent images are recorded on x-ray film, radiographic paper, or electrostatically sensitive paper such as is used in the xeroradiographic process and are called...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... it can take 20 min to develop a radiograph that can be viewed, radioscopy offers images in real time. The images are created on x-ray-sensitive screens that can be intensified and scanned with a camera for visual display. However, screen resolution and contrast are not as high as with film radiography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in.). Television Cameras The types of low-level television cameras available include image orthicons, image isocons, and secondary-electron-coupled vidicons. Radiographic inspection also is performed with x-ray-sensitive television cameras, which require no extra conversion or optics. X-ray-sensitive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in fluorescent-screen radiographs is primarily caused by the graininess that is inherent in the screen. This effect overshadows the effect of film graininess, especially with films that are particularly sensitive to screen fluorescence. The graininess of fluorescent-screen radiographs increases significantly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... is composed of a polyester base with an emulsion layer that is sensitive to radiation. Upon exposure, silver bromide contained in the emulsion layer is ionized, which produces a latent image. The latent image is then developed to produce a radiograph. A variety of x-ray film characteristics are available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... method of inspection is used extensively to examine brazed joints. However, this method is usually not selected for brazed joints requiring radiographic sensitivities of less than 2% and where thickness and x-ray adsorption ratios do not permit differentiation of the joint. Possible differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
..., it is not extensively used for this purpose except to inspect thick sections or inaccessible areas where radiographic sensitivity is limited. Surface finish and grain size affect the validity of the inspection results. Eddy current inspection, like ultrasonic inspection, can be used for detecting subsurface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., to investigate more detailed information into the volume of the component. NDE techniques such as eddy current testing (ET) for electrically-conductive materials, full volumetric inspection using ultrasonic testing (UT) for metals, and radiographic testing (RT) are available in these instances. Eddy current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... fibers, and therefore, the technique can be highly sensitive to the fiber orientation in the structure. This feature can be used as a means of characterization of the structure ( Ref 6 ). However, for the general inspection of fiber-reinforced composites, the most common inspection is with ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... on the skin or core. Water in the core can be detected radiographically when the cells are filled to at least 10% of the core height. Also, x-ray detection sensitivity is dependent on the sandwich skin thickness and radiographic technique. An additional problem is the ability to determine whether the suspect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... fibers, and therefore, the technique can be highly sensitive to the fiber orientation in the structure. This feature can be used as a means of characterization of the structure ( Ref 6 ). However, for the general inspection of fiber-reinforced composites, the most common inspection is with ultrasonic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006438
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... on the efficacy of any particular method but also on the associated costs. In some cases, safety-sensitive industries such as nuclear or aerospace require NDE of safety-critical parts, but the NDE cannot increase the component cost beyond what the market will bear. Flaw Detection and Evaluation and Probability...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003235
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metallic coatings on dielectric substrates Detection of voids, delaminatrons, macroporosity, inclusions, and other flaws in plastic or ceramic materials. Advantages In comparison with ultrasonic inspection and x-ray radiographic inspection, the advantages of inspection with microwaves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... to be interrogated and represented in a single image. This compression, however, limits the information and reduces the sensitivity to small variations. Radiographic images can be difficult to interpret because of shadows from overlying and underlying structures superimposed on the features of interest. Further...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-effect sensors, and magnetic-particle techniques), ultrasonic, acoustic emission, guided wave, laser testing, microwave, radiographic, thermal and infrared testing, x-ray diffraction, and visual inspection. Selection of the NDT method depends on product manufacturing specifications and requirements...