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radiographic film processing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of flaws is also discussed. The article concludes with a discussion on two methods of radiographic film processing: manual and automatic processing. collimators cylinders diaphragms double-image techniques film radiography filtration flanges inspection radiography plates single-image...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... “Test Method for Radiographic Examination of Weldments” ASTM E999 “Guide for Controlling the Quality of Industrial Radiographic Film Processing” ASTM E142 “Method for Controlling Quality of Radiographic Testing” ASTM E2007 “Standard Guide for Computed Radiography” ASTM E2738 “Standard...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., and many other factors that govern the exposure and processing of a neutron radiograph are similar to those for radiography using X-rays or gamma rays. gamma-ray radiography image conversion neutron radiography shadow formation X-ray films X-ray production X-ray radiography RADIOGRAPHY...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 6 Latitude curves for the radiographic inspection of steel at film densities ranging from 1.5 to 3.0. (a) Effect of tube voltage on latitude of a type 2 radiographic film. (b) Effect of film type on latitude for radiography using 250 kV x-rays. Curves were prepared from data obtained using More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...Abstract Abstract Radiography is the process or technique of producing images of a solid material on a paper/photographic film or on a fluorescent screen by means of radiation particles or electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. This article reviews the general characteristics and safety...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 5 Typical radiographic exposure charts for (a) aluminum and (b) steel for a film density of 2.0 without screens that relate exposure to thickness of testpieces for several values of tube voltage. Charts for aluminum and steel were prepared specifically for an Andrex 160 kV directional x-ray More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 3 Effect of various developing times on the characteristic curve of a radiographic film developed at 20 °C (68 °F) in a manual process More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 29 Typical unit for the manual development of radiographic film by a rack-and-tank method. (a) Processing tanks containing developer, stop bath, and fixer. (b) Cascade (countercurrent) washing tank More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... for radiographic inspection with radiation energies up to 10 MeV. With the image intensifier, a 2% difference in absorption can be routinely achieved in production inspection applications. The typical dynamic range of an image intensifier before image processing is approximately 2000 to 1. A schematic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... technique uses radiation, either as x-rays or gamma rays, to penetrate the weld to create a latent image on radiographic film. The test piece absorbs radiation, but when flaws are present, less is absorbed than the amount absorbed by the parent material, which produces a localized darkening of the film...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., neutron radiographic testing, x-ray diffraction Penetrating rays of x-ray, gamma rays, or neutrons passing through or reflecting from test object cast shadows or patterns on film or digital imaging plates Manufacturing, weld inspection, finding objects in closed containments, metrology of enclosed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... or current. Volumetric Inspection Methods Volumetric methods can detect internal anomalies and include radiographic inspection, ultrasonic inspection, and resonant testing. Radiographic Inspection Radiographic inspection is a process that uses penetrating radiation to detect differences...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... as required by the application. The acoustic emission system must be carefully selected, with respect to each application. Because the acoustic emission phenomenon is an irreversible process in materials, it must be accounted for in the overall inspection procedure. Radiographic Method The radiographic...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005341
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
...Abstract Abstract The commonly used nondestructive testing of cast products include liquid penetrant inspection, radiographic inspection, fluoroscopic inspection and automated defect recognition, ultrasonic inspection, eddy current inspection, process-controlled resonant testing (PCRT), leak...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of their nonhomogeneous, anisotropic characteristics, pose significant challenges for defect detection and materials property characterization. Throughout their life cycle, composites are susceptible to the formation of many possible defects, primarily due to their multiple-step production process, nonhomogeneous nature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006443
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and schedule. It describes the NDE engineering and NDE process control, along with some case studies related to the applications of NDE. The article reviews various models for predicting NDE reliability, such as ultrasonic inspection model, eddy current inspection model, and radiographic inspection model...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...: No adhesive film Protective film left on adhesive Foreign objects (inclusions) In practice, these conditions must be prevented by process control and training of the personnel engaged in the bonding operation. The first two conditions occur infrequently. Shavings, chips, wires, and so on can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and magnetic particle testing. It covers the effects of various factors on the properties of the part that may impact failure analysis, describes the characterization of damage modes and crack sizes, and finally discusses the processes involved in application of NDE results to failure analysis. crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
...Abstract Abstract This article provides an overview of the types of weld discontinuities that are characteristic of specialized welding processes. These welding processes include electron-beam welding, plasma arc welding, electroslag welding, friction welding, resistance welding, and diffusion...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005220
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., involving pouring or other types of surface turbulence. These actions entrain (fold in) the surface film to create entrainment defects. These are principally: Bubbles (that in turn create bubble trails) Bifilms, which are doubled-over surface films that act as cracklike defects Various entrained...