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radioactive-waste isolation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... corrosion resistance nickel alloys stainless steel titanium high-level waste container materials nuclear waste repository radioactive-waste isolation waste package RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS are extensively used in a variety of applications such as medical, weapons, and power generation. Once...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004223
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... steel pipes in BWRs, PWSCC of nickel-base alloys and steam generator corrosion in PWRs, the effect of irradiation on corrosion and SCC, corrosion of zirconium alloy fuel cladding, and the corrosion of containment materials for radioactive waste isolation for both BWRs and PWRs. All of these subjects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the neutron fluence rate available is at least 10 12 cm −2 · s −1 . Prior to the 1970s, most NAA procedures involved performing one or more postirradiation chemical separations, often to isolate individual elements or to separate all radioactive species into a few groups. At the time, the use of low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... Concepts, Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive,” Harwell, NSS/R-104CONF-8711200, 1988 , 14 p 19. Haworth A. , Sharland S.M. , Tweed C.J. , Lutz W. , and Ewing R.C. , Modelling of the Degradation of Cement in a Nuclear Waste Repository , Scientific Basis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... the radioactivity induced in the major elements of the sample (see the section “Nondestructive TNAA” in this article). In destructive (radiochemical) NAA, the detection limits for some elements are below 1 ppt The NAA method most commonly used involves irradiation of the sample using slow neutrons...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004132
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... and Space Administration, NASA); regulated wastes (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA); mixed low-level radioactive waste (U.S. Department of Energy, DoE); and explosives or nerve and blister agents destined for chemical demilitarization (U.S. Department of Defense, DoD). The DoD has a substantial...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001744
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... that contain uranium, plutonium, or both. Highly radioactive samples can be handled if there are no chemical interferences. Methods have been developed for separating the uranium from fission products in nuclear-reactor and waste samples before coulometric determination. A procedure is also available...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... such as grinding and drilling can often be eliminated. Although a sintering step is required with the green compact, the total cost of this process remains lower than from the sum of secondary operations and wasted metal generated from cutting/drilling. If the output from the primary metal production process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001221
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006134
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... oils Gel shearing Fluid bed reactor products Flue gases Power generation Mineral processing Pharmaceutical Condensate water polishing Coal, silica, metal oxides Process steam Fossil fuel waste streams Calciner & incinerator off gas Oxygen filters Radioactive material...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... of the metal used. The component designer should pay special attention to minimize isolated heavy sections, thick-to-thin transitions, extensive horizontal or flat surfaces, and sharp corners. The current developments in solidification modeling improve the design aspect of the component. As a first step...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of temperature, pressure, salinity, and pH ( Ref 1 ). In the 1950s, pioneering work by Zobell isolated sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) that grew at 104 °C (219 °F) and pressures of 1000 bar from oil-bearing geological formations deep underground ( Ref 15 ). Microbial communities exist in environments as diverse...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005895
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
...-temperature glasses Vitrification of nuclear radioactive waste Synthesis of difficult chemical compounds Production of disperse fuse powders Production of heat insulating materials The physical principle of the ISMT without using a segmented cold crucible is shown in Fig. 24 . The charge...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... with wind-power-generated electrolysis). Further uses include hydrocracking, reduction of unsaturated hydrocarbons, as well as a reactant in the Haber procedure for industrial ammonia synthesis. Isolation and purification of pure metals by reduction of the corresponding salts (aluminum, calcium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to support the plasma, to thermally isolate the plasma from the outer quartz tube, and to prevent overheating. Typical auxiliary gas flow of 0.8 to 1.2 L/min (0.0005 to 0.0007 ft 3 /s) is used to adjust the horizontal position of the plasma in the quartz tube. The third argon gas used in the ICP operation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., and therefore is removed from this water by the primary system demineralizers. Thus, cesium ends up in the radioactive waste, where it is processed and packaged on-site and shipped off-site for disposal. For each of these isotopes, and similarly for most fission product isotopes, due to their chemical behavior...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... phase. The rapid equilibration process can easily be demonstrated by immersing an ion-exchange resin containing counterions with one isotope (e.g., sodium 23) in a solution of an electrolyte containing counterions with a radioactive isotope that can be detected using suitable instrumentation (e.g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... elements, is the key to ensuring that the cast part will meet a customer’s requirements. A carbon equivalent that is too high will result in problems such as graphite flotation, exploded graphite, or chunky graphite. In the event that one section of the large casting can be isolated and chilled, the final...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... preferentially at prior-austenite grain corners and edges, it is also distributed as isolated primary Widmanstätten sideplates along grain boundaries. The 3D rendering of several ferrite precipitates along a former austenite grain boundary shown in Fig. 7 illustrates this observation. Fig. 6 Typical...