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radioactive isotopes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the subset of sampled atoms. With NAA, the analyte atoms are “tagged” by means of known nuclear reactions caused by neutron bombardment. The tagging process converts a stable isotope nucleus into a radioactive nucleus. Characteristic radiation is emitted by the newly created radioactive nucleus...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... radiography. The application of neutron radiography is described, especially in terms of its advantages for improved contrast on low-atomic-number materials, discrimination between isotopes, or inspection of radioactive specimens. Neutrons are subatomic particles that are characterized by relatively large...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... 0.20–10 4.5 MeV 25–300 1–12 7.5 MeV 60–460 2.35–18 20.0 MeV 75–610 3–24 Gamma-rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves of a relatively short wavelength that are emitted during the radioactive decay of both naturally occurring and artificially produced unstable isotopes...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...). Fig. 1 Periodic table of the elements. Values in brackets indicate the mass number of the longest lived isotope of the radioactive element. In the periodic table ( Fig. 1 ), the elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic number (the number of protons in the nucleus), but those...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in direct contact with the back of the weld. When the film is developed, gas pockets, slag inclusions, cracks, or poor penetration are visible on the film. Conventional radiography, which uses x-ray machines or radioactive isotopes such as iridium-192 and cobalt-60 for generating penetrating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... the capability of the mass spectrometer to show the rapid changes in composition. Source: Ref 7 Gases and radioactive elements are trapped as molten rock cools and solidifies, with subsequently generated gases created by radioactive decay also being trapped. Xenon has nine stable isotopes, five...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... precursor for populating the 14.4 keV level of 57 Fe, the most heavily studied Mössbauer isotope. Figure 1 shows the appropriate decay scheme for 57 Fe. Table 1 lists isotopes that can be used for ME studies, along with some of their properties. Table 4 lists radioactive parents and their principal...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... extra neutrons in the nucleus. Therefore, chromium has 24 protons, 28 neutrons, and 24 electrons. Some isotopes decay, while others never have been observed to undergo radioactive decay and are described as stable isotopes. There are approximately 339 naturally occurring stable isotopes, of which 288...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005430
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... through a material of which it is a component. As such, the tracer diffusivity is generally measured by introducing a radioactive isotope in dilute concentration into an otherwise homogeneous material. Thus, the only driving force in the system is that of the concentration gradient of the tracer. In a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006455
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... selection of radiographic film for steel, aluminum, bronze, and magnesium in various thicknesses Thickness Type of film (a) for use with these x-ray tube voltages, or radioactive isotopes: mm in. 50–80 kV 80–120 kV 120–150 kV 150–250 kV Ir-192 250–400 kV 1 MeV Co-60 2 MeV Ra 6–31 MeV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... moment, μ n = −1.913043(1) μ N (where μ N is the nuclear magneton), with a corresponding spin of ½. Free neutrons can occur from radioactive decay of unstable isotopes and are themselves unstable, with a half-life of approximately 14.7 min. The high flux required for materials research purposes is...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... rapid equilibration process can easily be demonstrated by immersing an ion-exchange resin containing counterions with one isotope (e.g., sodium 23) in a solution of an electrolyte containing counterions with a radioactive isotope that can be detected using suitable instrumentation (e.g., sodium 22...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003166
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...% fissionable U 235 and 99.3% U 238 . Isotopic separation is done during chemical processing of uranium ores, resulting in enriched UF 6 , which contains much more than 0.7% U 235 and is reserved for nuclear applications, and depleted UF 6 , which is typically 99.8% U 238 and is available for nonnuclear...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in a vacuum chamber is impractical for x-ray spectrometry, and therefore, x-rays from an x-ray tube are the most practical energy source to disturb atoms for XRF spectroscopy. Radioactive isotopes that emit gamma rays are another possibility for excitation of atoms to emit x-rays. However, the x-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... stored under poor conditions has recently been reported ( Ref 96 ). Special care should be observed when handling uranium due to its mild radioactivity, chemical toxicity, and pyrophoricity. The primary radiological hazards associated with uranium are alpha and beta emission. Alpha radiation mainly...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Baddeleyite, a naturally occurring zirconia, contains radioactive isotopes of zirconium, which make this material and products based on it a registered hazardous material in the United States. Organic resins, used for making unfired shaped carbon-containing refractories, are being closely monitored in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006634
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... analyte present in the unknown. An exception occurs when an isotopically labeled standard is used, in conjunction with mass discrimination or radioactive counting detection. In a chromatographic measurement, this is typically at least baseline resolution, although this would be a minimally acceptable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005441
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... certain artificial elements. They are considered reliable to ±1 in the last digit or ±3 when followed by an asterisk (∗). Values in parentheses are used for radioactive elements whose atomic weights cannot be quoted precisely without knowledge of the origin of the elements; the value given is the atomic...