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radioactive isotopes

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006432
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
... measurement methods to introduce the advantages of using radioactive isotopes (RI) for wear or corrosion measurements in comparison to other methods. The article provides information on radiation safety regulations and approaches to minimize external radiation exposure. It describes neutron activation, thin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Abstract Radioanalysis is an analytical technique that uses energy emitted by radioactive isotopes to measure the concentration of related elements in test samples. This article begins with a discussion on the principles of radioactive decay and various forms of emission, including alpha...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... With NAA, the analyte atoms are “tagged” by means of known nuclear reactions caused by neutron bombardment. The tagging process converts a stable isotope nucleus into a radioactive nucleus. Characteristic radiation is emitted by the newly created radioactive nucleus. Both the energies and timescales...
Image
Published: 01 December 1998
Fig. 1 Periodic table of the elements. Values in brackets indicate the mass number of the longest lived isotope of the radioactive element. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... in a reactor, followed by observation of the γ-rays emitted from the sample by radioactive isotopes formed through capture of neutrons by the sample elements. Individual γ-rays can be identified with specific elements, and the intensity of each γ-ray provides a direct measure of the element abundance. Basic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003238
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the radioactive decay of both naturally occurring and artificially produced unstable isotopes. In all respects other than their origin, γ-rays and x-rays are identical. Unlike the broad-spectrum radiation produced by x-ray sources, γ-ray sources emit one or more discrete wavelengths of radiation, each having its...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...). Many of the elements in the periodic table have either naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or isotopes that can be made radioactive by irradiation with a stream of neutrons in the core of the nuclear reactor (synthetic isotopes). However, only certain isotopes are extensively used for radiography...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... reactors power plants thermal spray coating NUCLEAR ENERGY is the strong force contained in the central portion or nucleus of atoms that binds together the collection of neutrons and protons that create the unique elements and isotopes that make up our universe. Some of the nuclear energy can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001737
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... isotope to calculate the elemental concentration. This method is generally limited to these elements for which separated isotopes are available, that is, the polynuclidic elements. Mononuclidic elements can be analyzed using this technique only if a radioactive spike isotope is available, with attendant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 March 2024
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0007039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... caused sputtering and distribution of the iron 59 Fe radioactive atoms located in the cathode center and moved outside the active area ( Fig. 3 – 5 ) ( Ref 6 , 8 ). Data in Table 1 illustrate that in the gas mixtures used for plasma nitriding, the 59 Fe isotope atoms were transferred out...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0005692
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... group. A chemical radical or half-life (q/2)- The time required for one half structure that has characteristic properties; of an initial (large) number of atoms of a index of refraction. See refractive index. examples are hydroxyl and carboxyl radioactive isotope to decay. Half-life is groups. related...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... in the nucleus. Therefore, chromium has 24 protons, 28 neutrons, and 24 electrons. Some isotopes decay, while others never have been observed to undergo radioactive decay and are described as stable isotopes. There are approximately 339 naturally occurring stable isotopes, of which 288 are primordial...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003083
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The names of elements 101 to 109 were confirmed at the IUPAC General Assembly held in Geneva (press release 30 Aug 1997). Fig. 1 Periodic table of the elements. Values in brackets indicate the mass number of the longest lived isotope of the radioactive element. In the periodic table ( Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006663
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... weight range of the targets. For example, an air (O 2 , N 2 , Ar) or CO 2 measurement only requires a range containing m / z from 28 to 44, a Xe isotope measurement requires a range of m / z up to 136, and a volatile organic compound analysis might need to analyze a range of m / z up to 250...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
.... To obtain the required γ-rays, a radioactive precursor, or parent, is used. For example, 57 Co is a suitable precursor for populating the 14.4-keV level of 57 Fe, the most heavily studied Mössbauer isotope. Figure 1 shows the appropriate decay scheme for 57 Fe. Table 1 lists isotopes that can be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... from Ref 15 To obtain the required γ-rays, a radioactive precursor, or parent, is used. For example, 57 Co is a suitable precursor for populating the 14.4 keV level of 57 Fe, the most heavily studied Mössbauer isotope. Figure 1 shows the appropriate decay scheme for 57 Fe. Table 1 lists...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... 7 ) Work Function 1.7 to 2.55 eV (0.27 to 0.41 aJ), depending on conditions and techniques of the experimental determination ( Ref 11 , 12 , 13 ) Magnetic Properties Magnetic Susceptibility Molar: 0.254 mks at 20 °C ( Ref 14 ) Nuclear Properties Stable Isotopes 130 Ba...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006748
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... to be delivered to the region of the sam- of an initial (large) number of atoms of a ion beams with ~5 nm focused probe size. ple where the beam is incident. The GIS radioactive isotope to decay. Half-life is Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spec- allows for nanometer-scale deposition or related to the decay...
Book: Machining
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 16
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1989
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v16.a0002192
EISBN: 978-1-62708-188-7
... of uranium is isotopically independent, but health physics concerns vary with the individual isotopes. Only when health physics is concerned will the discussion be limited specifically to depleted uranium. Metallurgical Considerations The three classes of uranium alloys are: Dilute alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001085
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... associated with processing depleted uranium and methods to control mild radioactivity, chemical toxicity, and pyrophoricity. It also describes the classification and heat treatment of uranium and uranium alloys. Furthermore, the article provides graphical representation of the effect of alloy composition...