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radiation emission

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...) 8.970 Fig. 6 Fluorescent yield versus atomic number for K and L lines Abstract Abstract This article provides an introduction to x-ray spectrometry, and discusses the role of electromagnetic radiation, x-ray emission, and x-ray absorption. It focuses on the instrumentation...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...). This is followed by a discussion on the mechanism and effects of X-ray radiation, X-ray emission, and X-ray absorption. The article then discusses components used, operation, and applications of WDS and EDS. Some of the factors and processes involved in sample preparation for XRF analysis are also included...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005858
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... Among General Practicioners . B; MC Public Health , Oct. 30 , 2006 , Vol 6 , p 267 10.1186/1471-2458-6-267 6. “Safety of Machinery. Assessment and Reduction of Risks Arising from Radiation Emitted by Machinery—Part 1: General Principles,” BS EN 12198-1:2000+A1:2008, British Standards...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006642
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... into a radioactive nucleus. Characteristic radiation is emitted by the newly created radioactive nucleus. Both the energies and timescales of radiation emissions are unique and provide two dimensions for sorting observations. The radiation emission energies are most often discreet, with a few instances of continuum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... as a diagnostic technique for weld quality monitoring ( Ref 15 , 16 ). An area that has received greater investigation is the spectral range of the electromagnetic radiation emission from the metal vapor/plasma plume. Monitoring this spectral range provides means to infer the quality of the laser weld process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., certain variables should be considered, such as cost, temperature range, useful life, accuracy, size, and response speed. The selection of noncontact sensors involves similar considerations plus those related to radiation factors such as target size, surface emissivity, focal length, and sighting path...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... ) σ T 4 e ,( T ) Hemispherical total emissive power Emission, including all wavelengths, into hemispherical solid angle per unit surface area and time σ T 4 Stefan-Boltzmann's law Note: Spectral denotes dependence on wavelength for any radiation quantity; superscript...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... radiation. Other surfaces, such as a glossy painted surface, do not radiate as much energy as the black body. To describe the gray nature of such a surface, the term emissivity is introduced. Emissivity is the ratio of radiation of the gray surface to an ideal black surface. The importance of radiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001749
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... Emission and Electron Capture Gamma-Ray Emission Internal Conversion X-Ray Emission Charged-Particle Detectors Photon Detectors Counting and Recording Instruments Radioactive Decay Spectrometry Detection Limits Radioactive Material Requirements Radiation Protection Needs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.a0006564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
... by the scanner. Temperature measurement of the melt pool is complicated by the fact that the emissivity of the surface changes with temperature and as the material changes phase. One approach to determining the true temperature is to measure the IR radiation at two wavelengths. The technique is based...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... (or by any laser, in fact) is in part absorbed by the target, in part reflected by the target, and the balance causes an instantaneous emission of highly energized atomic and subatomic particles from the target's uppermost surface layer. The ratio of these three parts is a function of laser wavelength...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
..., and emission may appear to decrease as concentration increases at these levels. Self-absorption, in which the emitting species subsequently reabsorbs emitted radiation, may also occur at high concentrations. Dimerization (P + P = P 2 ), excimer formation (P + P* = PP*), and exciplex formation (P* + N = P*N...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... kPa (200 psi) back pressure provides improved precision ( Ref 10 ). Spectral interferences, a basic problem in any emission technique, arise from the incomplete isolation of radiation emitted by the analyte from other radiation as detected by the instrument. The emission spectra of many elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05a.a0005731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-171-9
... and emission spectroscopy are used to determine the chemistry of thermal spray feedstock materials. Spectroscopy is the measurement and interpretation of electromagnetic radiation absorbed or emitted when molecules, atoms, or ions of a sample move from one energy state to another. A characteristic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... = 9 Transmission of secondary radiation through a low-<italic>Z</italic> sample approximately 5 mg/cm<sup>2</sup> thick Table 1B Transmission of secondary radiation through a low- Z sample approximately 5 mg/cm 2 thick Secondary radiation Energy Criterion Photons 3 keV...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005878
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... phenomena could be used. In some cases it is possible to assume that the workpiece is perfectly black, which means full absorption of radiation has been used. Both methods are based on general conditions of radiation between n surfaces S i at temperature T i , and their total emissivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006647
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... areas. The atomization process mainly occurs in the preheating zone. The initial radiation zone covers predominantly the excitation and ionization, and the normal analytical zone comprises the emission collected by the spectrometer. The upper part of the plasma corresponds with the recombination zone...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001728
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is cited in Ref 3 . Two types of wavelength-sorting devices are most commonly used for emission spectroscopy. The first, the grating monochromator, is used for single-channel detection of radiation. Figure 5 shows the light path through a Czerny-Turner monochromator, a typical configuration. Light...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
..., there is still a copious emission of IR radiation. Note that the radiance at every wavelength increases with increasing temperature, and the determination of the radiance at any wavelength can serve to establish the temperature of the emitter. Figure 8 shows what happens if an emissivity error of 10...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001734
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... beam) 28 (a) Effective atomic number, Z eff = 9 Transmission of secondary radiation through a low-<italic>Z</italic> sample approximately 5 mg/cm<sup>2</sup> thick Table 1(b) Transmission of secondary radiation through a low- Z sample approximately 5 mg/cm 2 thick Secondary...