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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for furnace parts and fixtures for hardening, annealing, normalizing, brazing, and stress relieving Table 5 Recommended materials for furnace parts and fixtures for hardening, annealing, normalizing, brazing, and stress relieving Retorts, muffles, radiant tubes Mesh belts Chain link Sprockets...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.a0005529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
... and continuous furnaces. The heating methods, such as direct-fired heating, radiant-tube heating, and electrical heating, are also discussed. Furnace temperature control is essential to ensure quality heat treatment. The article explains the operating procedure of the automatic temperature controllers used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001269
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Preparation Other Specialized Cleaning Methods Alkaline Cleaning Electrolytic Cleaning Maintenance Chemical Pickling Electrolytic Pickling Sendzimir Oxidation/Reduction Method Oxidizing Furnace Direct-Fired Furnace Radiant-Tube Furnace Fluxes Mechanical Cleaning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005957
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... parts, such as conveyors and rollers in continuous furnaces, radiant tubes for indirect firing, and covers in coil and pack-annealing furnaces, are of metallic construction because the temperature seldom exceeds the 425 to 870 °C (800 to 1600 °F) range. Special alloys are used to reduce the maintenance...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003198
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Recommended materials for furnace parts and fixtures for hardening, annealing, normalizing, brazing, and stress relieving Table 1 Recommended materials for furnace parts and fixtures for hardening, annealing, normalizing, brazing, and stress relieving Retorts, muffles, radiant tubes Mesh...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... uniformly. The unit contains combined heating and cooling elements and a provision for blanketing the surface of the oil with an inert gas atmosphere. Radiant tube is used for heating and cooling. Source: Ref 2 Quench Tank Size The size of a quench tank is dependent on the quenchant, size...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...) in a 4.9 m (16 ft) intermittent furnace with radiant-tube heating. Indicating thermocouple was 710 mm (28 in.) below the top of the conveyor and 580 mm (22.75 in.) above the differential thermocouple. Both thermocouples were attached to the parts. Fig. 3 Flange forming. (a) Flanges can be formed...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... (poor) Coors 0.25, 1.0 30 × 30 × 46 Multiple Clean (good), alkalis (poor) Radiant tubes INEX … 5–15 OD × 180 long Radiant furnace 1315 2400 Alkalis, HF, HCl 3M … 2.5–20 OD × 2 Radiant furnace 1450 2640 Alkalis, HF, HCl Fluidized beds Aerojet 7 … Aluminum melt furnace...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... heaters, all specially designed for operation at high ambient air temperature. Quartz-tube and metal-sheath heaters are adapted to the furnace so that radiant heat is available in the firing zone along with forced circulation. Package heaters are placed remote from the firing zone; this is the most...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.9781627081665
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003199
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... ignited, multiburner furnace that does not have flame-safety equipment and a programmed sequence of piloting the main burners. Supervisory gas-cock systems are used on radiant-tube furnaces and other furnaces where flame-safety systems are difficult to apply. Although motor generators account...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... resistance, and dimensional stability at extreme temperatures Compact heat exchanges, heat exchanger tubes, radiant tubes, furnace components, insulators, thermocouple protection tubes, kiln furniture Internal combustion engine components Engine components High-Temperature resistance, wear resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001731
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... 2 + complex ion. Fig. 9 Schematic of Nessler tube colorimetry. Fig. 10 Schematic of a dispersive single-beam spectrophotometer. Fig. 11 Block diagram of a double-beam spectrophotometer. Fig. 3 Exponential decay of radiant power as a function of path...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
.../air ratios depends, in part, on whether the furnace provides direct heating of the workpiece or indirect heating with radiant tubes. Because direct heating involves the exposure of workpieces to the hot flue gases, the control of fuel/air ratios in direct heating furnaces may be slightly on either...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005993
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... coordinates μ = dynamic viscosity; β= coefficient of volumetric thermal expansion Analogy formula for Stanton number of tube flow Table 18 Analogy formula for Stanton number of tube flow Type of analogy Stanton No., S t = Nu Re Pr Reynolds f 8 Prandtl...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... of heat transfer from one body to another by electromagnetic wave motion. The transmission of radiant energy does not require a carrying medium. The basic law of heat conduction, proposed by Fourier, states that the rate of heat flow in a material is proportional to the area perpendicular to heat flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... is blown with high pressure air or gas to break up the stream into finer filaments or strands of glass. The glass coming out of the nozzle, therefore, needs to be more fluid or at higher temperatures. If the glass is cooling as it flows through the electric tube furnace/melter to the nozzle, this will make...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... of replacement materials and services used to maintain the equipment such as fans, motors, bearings, radiant tubes, refractory, hearths or skid rails, and so forth. The internal costs of the maintenance department and their expenses are allocated as part of the General and Administrative (G/A) expense...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... parts in salt Table 7 Typical applications of martempering steel parts in salt Part Grade Maximum section thickness Weight Martempering conditions Required hardness, HRC Temperature of salt Time in salt, min mm in. kg lb °C °F Compliant tube 4130 0.8 0.03 0.11 0.25...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003029
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... , 1986 , p 1797 – 1802 14. “Standard Test Method for Surface Flammability of Materials Using a Radiant Heat Energy Source,” ASTM E 162-94, 1995 Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM 15. Charrier J.-M. , Polymeric Materials and Processing , Hansen Publishers , 1990 16...