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racking practices

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... severity quench tank quenching racking practices spray quenching water as a quenchant QUENCHING refers to the rapid cooling of metal from the solution treating temperature, typically between 465 and 565 °C (870 and 1050 °F) for aluminum alloys. The fundamental objective of quenching is to preserve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... control, equipment, surface preparation, and crack patterns and other characteristics of hard chromium plating. It offers recommendations for the design and use of plating racks, describes the problems encountered in hard chromium plating, and their corrective procedures. The article provides information...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005338
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article describes typical foundry practices used to commercially produce zirconium castings. The foundry practices are divided into two sections, namely, melting and casting. The article discusses various melting processes, such as vacuum arc skull melting, induction skull melting...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... hole, water-cooling system, preheat and furnace scrap burners, and ladles. The article describes the acid and basic steelmaking practices. It discusses the raw materials used, oxidation process, methods of heat reduction, and deoxidation process in the practices. The article provides a discussion on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Copper alloys are widely used as electroplated coatings. They can also be used with practically any substrate material that is suitable for electroplating. This article focuses on the solution composition and operating conditions for brass and bronze plating solutions. It describes the...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005230
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article provides an overview of heat treatment processes, namely, solution heat treatment, quenching, and natural and artificial aging. It contains a table that lists various heat treatment tempers commonly practiced for nonferrous castings. The article describes microstructural...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Gravity has profound influences on most solidification and crystal growth processes. Modification of gravity over practical time scales for the purposes of modifying or controlling solidification proves to be a far more daunting and expensive technological challenge. This article...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003217
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract There are various coating techniques in practice to prevent the deterioration of steels. This article focuses on dip, barrier, and chemical conversion coatings and describes hot-dip processes for coating carbon steels with zinc, aluminum, lead-tin, and other alloys. It describes...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract This article discusses the melting and poring practices, heat treatment, and applications of different types of high-alloy graphitic iron, namely, high-silicon gray irons, high-silicon ductile irons, nickel-alloyed austenitic irons, austenitic gray irons, austenitic ductile irons, and...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... aluminum and titanium on the structure and properties of nickel-base alloys. The article provides information on the melting, foundry, and pouring practices for nickel-base alloys. It describes the welding and heat treatment of the nickel-base casting alloys. The article concludes with information on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... fatigue, and mechanical fatigue. The article describes heat treating practices commonly employed for chromium- and tungsten-base AISI hot-work tool steels. It discusses the fabrication of impression dies, and the advantages and disadvantages of cast dies. The article concludes with a discussion on the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001229
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... involved in the batch, continuous, and electrolytic pickling of carbon steel components. The article describes the effects of process variables on scale removal in sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It concludes with a description of pickling defects, spent pickle liquor disposal, and safety practices...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003041
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... functions of an autoclave system, including pressure vessel, gas stream heating and circulation sources, gas stream pressurizing systems, vacuum systems, control systems, and loading systems. The article includes information about modified autoclaves for specialized applications and safety practices in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... hydrogen damage in all the major commercial alloy systems. It covers the broader topic of hydrogen damage, which can be quite complex and technical in nature. The article focuses on failure analysis where hydrogen embrittlement of a steel component is suspected. It provides practical advice for the failure...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... Abstract Cores are separate shapes of sand that are placed in the mold to provide castings with contours, cavities, and passages that are not otherwise practical or physically obtainable by the mold. This article describes the basic principles of coremaking and the types of core sands, binders...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... the foundry alloys for specific casting applications. The article concludes with a discussion on the heat treatment practices and properties of aluminum casting alloys. chemical composition solidification aluminum cast alloys stoichiometry of intermetallic phases aluminum-silicon alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... and insights on the most common forms of corrosion observed with titanium alloys, including general corrosion, crevice corrosion, anodic pitting, hydrogen damage, stress-corrosion cracking, galvanic corrosion, corrosion fatigue, and erosion-corrosion. It also provides practical strategies for...
Book Chapter

By A. Sato
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... affecting the primary and secondary current distribution characteristics. In most cases, with proper attention to racking and work shape, current density variations can be kept within practical limits on fabricated parts so that if a minimum average thickness of 4 μm (0.15 mil) is required on a specific...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001324
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... fluid and rinse water to drain away when the parts are removed from the tank. If these fluids do not drain away properly, it could lead to corrosion of ferrous metals and excessive depletion of the cleaning chemical from the wash tank. The proper racking of parts will help to eliminate this possibility...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... anodic coatings. The limitations imposed by each of these variables on the various anodizing processes are described below. Anodizing racks or fixtures should be designed for efficiency in loading and unloading of workpieces. Important features that must be included...