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quenched-and-tempered steel

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... The fundamental mechanisms as well as the results presented within this article regarding the residual stress and distortion in quenched and tempered steels clearly show that substantial improvements have been made in recent years concerning understanding the process. Both residual stresses and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... observed during and after heat treating of quenched and tempered steels. It describes phase transformations of steels during heating, cooling of steel with and without metallurgical transformation, and the formation of high-temperature transformation products on the surface of a carburized part. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and teeming practices may be used to produce decarburized sheets: ladle aluminum killed-ingot poured, and ladle aluminum killed-continuously cast. These aluminum killed products are not subject to the return of yield point elongation following temper rolling. As killed steels, the hot coiling off the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article provides information on the salt baths used for a variety of heat treatments, including heating, quenching, interrupted quenching (austempering and martempering), case hardening, and tempering. It describes two general types of salt bath systems for steel hardening: the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... larger sections and the use of an oil rather than a water quench to minimize distortion and avoid quench cracking. When the standard alloy steels are considered, it is found that, for practical purposes, all compositions develop the same tensile properties when quenched to martensite and tempered to...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., for example, hot rolling, quenching, and so forth. This article describes the role of these factors in both theoretical and practical terms, with particular focus on the role of microstructure. It lists the mechanical properties of selected steels in various heat-treated or cold-worked conditions. In...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... and surface finishes can be obtained by varying the surface of the work rolls in the final temper-rolling or cold-rolling pass. Fig. 5 Surface morphology and microstructure of tinplate. Scanning electron microscope section The chromium coating that is most widely applied to steel strip by...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003202
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., austenitizing, quenching, preheating, and tempering commonly employed in certain steels. These are water-hardening tool steels, shock-resisting tool steels, oil-hardening cold-work tool steels, medium-alloy air-hardening cold-work tool steels, high-carbon high-chromium cold-work tool steels, hot-work tool...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the heat treating (stress relieving, normalizing, annealing, quenching, tempering, martempering, austempering, and age hardening) of different types of steels, including ultrahigh-strength steels, maraging steels, and powder metallurgy steels. Tabulating the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003093
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... for the mechanical properties of selected carbon and alloy steels in the hot-rolled, normalized, annealed, and quenched-and tempered condition are provided. alloy steels alloying elements annealed steel carbon steels hot-rolled steel mechanical properties normalized steel quenched-and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... toughness and ductility and reduce hardness in a manner similar to that used for alloy steels. The metallurgy of copper alloys is suited for using, singly or in combination, the various common strengthening mechanisms: solid solution and work hardening, as well as dispersed particle and precipitation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., spinodal-hardening, and order-hardening types. Quench-hardening alloys comprise aluminum bronzes, nickel-aluminum bronzes, and a few copper-zinc alloys. Quench-hardened alloys normally are tempered to improve toughness and ductility and reduce hardness in a manner similar to that for alloy steels...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Cast irons may be compared with steels in their reactions to hardening. However, because cast irons (except white iron) contain graphite and substantially higher percentages of silicon, they require higher austenitizing temperatures. This article describes the effect of heat treatment...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article presents a detailed account on the process flow, composition, alternative sources, and the advancement of ironmaking, steelmaking and secondary steelmaking practices. Some steels, such as bearing steels, heat-resistant steels, ultrahigh strength missile and aircraft steels...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003114
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... rather than as specific data. Property and fabrication characteristic comparisons are given in Table 3 and in Fig. 3 and 4 . Table 3 Processing and service characteristics of tool steels AISI designation Resistance to decarburization Hardening and tempering Fabrication and service...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... produced from any of the previously mentioned medium-alloy compositions by heat treating with liquid-quenching techniques and low tempering temperatures. Cast 4300-series steels or modifications thereof are usually employed. Cast wear-resistant steels are used in wear applications such as ground...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of the conventional grades of maraging steel are listed in Table 10 . One of the distinguishing features of maraging steels is superior toughness compared to conventional steels. Figure 2 compares K Ic values for several maraging steels with those of quenched and tempered alloy steels as a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003195
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... constituents and hardness values that exist at 0.8 R and at the center of bars of various dimensions after cooling in water or oil can be determined. Fig. 11 CCT diagrams for AISI 4130 steel. (a) Water quench, 0.8 R specimen. (b) Water quench, center of specimen. (c) Oil quench, 0.8 R specimen. (d...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... SAE AMS 2759. Quench media include water, brine, aqueous polymer, gas or air quenching, and caustic quenching. Tempering: Tempering is the thermal treatment of hardened and normalized steels to obtain the desired mechanical properties, which include improved toughness and ductility, lower hardness...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003098
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-alloy steels. QT, quenched and tempered; NT, normalized and tempered Fig. 4 Effect of temperature on Charpy V-notch impact energy of cast steels for low-temperature service. Steel grades conformed to ASTM A 352. Heat treatments were as follows: grade LCB (0.30% C max, 1.00% Mn max steel...