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quenchants

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... hardness for carbon and low-alloy steels. As a single-value parameter alternative to Grossmann H-values, QFA is a potential method to qualify a quenching medium or process or to effectively monitor variation of quench severity due to either the quenchant or the system. The article describes the procedures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, density, and surface tension. It reviews wetting and boiling heat-transfer characteristics of nanofluids as quenchants and highlights the importance of using nanofluids as effective quench media for the hardening process during heat treatment. The article describes...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
...Abstract Abstract The use of gases or molten salts as the quenchant for steel parts is commonly limited to the quenching of high-alloy steel or the carbonizing quenching of low-alloy steel. This article reviews the quenching process of steels with molten metals (quenchant) such as molten lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... of quenchant characterization using hardening-power and cooling-power tests. The article discusses the fundamentals involved in heat-transfer coefficient and heat flux of quenching processes. This discussion is followed by various actual examples of applications of these methods using simplified equations...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...Abstract Abstract Spray quenching refers to a wide variety of quenching processes that involve heat removal facilitated by the impingement of a quenchant medium on a hot metal surface. This article provides information on the basic concepts of spray quenching, and discusses the most commonly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... operations. It discusses the quenchants that are used in quenching aluminum alloys, namely, hot or cold water and polyalkylene glycol. The article also describes the racking practices for controlling distortion and the level of residual stresses induced during the quench. aluminum alloys distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... cooling rate. It describes the quench sensitivity and severity of alloys, quench mechanisms and the different types of quenchants used in immersion, spray, and fog quenching. The article provides a detailed description of the quench-factor analysis that mainly includes residual stress and distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... ) of a PAG quenchant as a function of polymer concentration, bath temperature, and circulation rate Fig. 25 Effect of inlet to outlet ratio on quench flow as a function of pressure Fig. 24 Effect of hole size on quench flow versus pressure Fig. 15 Effect of bath temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... from top figures: (c) normal quench and (d) delayed quench. Z , incubation period (in seconds) Fig. 1 Results of quenching tests using the Temperature Gradient Quenching Analysis System method and the Liščić/Nanmac probe. Quenchants are mineral oil at 20 °C without agitation and 25% poly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... temperature-distribution model, calculation of the HTC, and the finite-volume method for the heat-conduction equation. References References 1. Totten G.E. , Webster G.M. , Tensi H.M. , and Liscic B. , Standards for Cooling Curve Analysis of Quenchants , Heat Treat. Met...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... used to determine gas pressure, vacuum level, gas flow, and gas composition. It focuses on their measuring quenchant characteristics, including bulk temperature, viscosity, composition, and cooling efficiency. The article describes the procedures for detecting variability in the incoming product...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... in the quenching of steel. This article describes the characterization of boiling heat transfer, including pool boiling, forced convective boiling, and rewetting, which plays a key role in defining the heat-extraction characteristics of a liquid quenchant. It provides information on heat generated microstructural...
Book Chapter

By J.R. Keough
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... and operation of salt quenching including considerations of time, temperature, environment, and safety, as well as critical characteristics such as the composition of the quenchant, agitation, and water additions. chemical analysis environmental safety salt quenching THE USE OF MOLTEN SALTS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... with the originally-used product, assessed on the basis of viscosity increase in a laboratory test. Adapted from Ref 15 Fig. 5 Cooling curves for 1045 steel cylinders quenched in salt, water, and oil. Thermocouples located in the geometric center. Source: Ref 5 Fig. 6 Effects of quenchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... hardness gradients. The article provides information on controlling of cyaniding time and temperature, bath composition, and case depth, and presents examples that relate dimensional change to several shapes that vary in complexity. It also provides information on the quenchant removal and salt removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... characteristics and transformation behavior of steel wires during patenting. The two aqueous polymer quenchants used as alternatives for lead baths, are carboxymethyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol. A small amount of polymer additive in spraying could modify the physical properties of the spray medium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... continuous cooling transformation diagram crystal structure decarburization dimensional change grain size grinding heat treatment machining mechanical cracking microcracks microsegregation nonmetallic inclusions phase transformation process design quench distortion quenchants quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... andadministrative; T.C., total cost Fig. 1 Allocation of process control and quenchant costs Fig. 2 Allocation of repairs/maintenance and fixtures/tooling costs Abstract Abstract This article presents a simple cost/pricing system that is reasonably accurate and could easily...