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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006506
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... operations. It discusses the quenchants that are used in quenching aluminum alloys, namely, hot or cold water and polyalkylene glycol. The article also describes the racking practices for controlling distortion and the level of residual stresses induced during the quench. aluminum alloys distortion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... rate. It describes the quench sensitivity and severity of alloys, quench mechanisms and the different types of quenchants used in immersion, spray, and fog quenching. The article provides a detailed description of the quench-factor analysis that mainly includes residual stress and distortion, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for carbon and low-alloy steels. As a single-value parameter alternative to Grossmann H-values, QFA is a potential method to qualify a quenching medium or process or to effectively monitor variation of quench severity due to either the quenchant or the system. The article describes the procedures for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract This article describes various quenchants, namely, water and inorganic salt solutions, polymers (polyvinyl alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyethyl oxazoline, polyvinyl pyrrolidone and sodium polyacrylates), quench oils, and molten salts, which are used for heat treatment of ferrous...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... conductivity, viscosity, specific heat, density, and surface tension. It reviews wetting and boiling heat-transfer characteristics of nanofluids as quenchants and highlights the importance of using nanofluids as effective quench media for the hardening process during heat treatment. The article describes the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article describes flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract The use of gases or molten salts as the quenchant for steel parts is commonly limited to the quenching of high-alloy steel or the carbonizing quenching of low-alloy steel. This article reviews the quenching process of steels with molten metals (quenchant) such as molten lead, molten...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4D
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 October 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04d.a0005938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-168-9
... treatment simulation mechanical properties quench cracking quenchants steel temper embrittlement tool steel HEAT TREATING is done to not only optimize microstructure formation and residual stress distribution, but also to reduce quench distortion and prevent quench cracking. Many studies on quench...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... general and administrative costs. The article discusses the techniques involved in allocating costs to the group of equipment, and presents a description on the cost analysis of endothermic gas. cost analysis endothermic generators heat treatment quenchants Although heat...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... continuous cooling transformation diagram crystal structure decarburization dimensional change grain size grinding heat treatment machining mechanical cracking microcracks microsegregation nonmetallic inclusions phase transformation process design quench distortion quenchants quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005862
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... quenching. It also describes various quenching methods for steel induction heat treating, namely, spray quenching, immersion quenching, self or mass quenching, and forced air quenching. The article also reviews quench system design and quenchants and their maintenance. brine quenching induction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005824
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article provides an overview of common quenching media, the factors involved in the mechanism of quenching, and process variables, namely, surface condition, mass and section size of the workpiece, and flow rate of the quenching liquid. It describes the methods of quenchant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... transformation (a metallurgical process) that are initiated at the moment when the austenitized workpiece is immersed in the quenchant. The article describes the uses of polyalkylene glycol copolymer and the effect of hardness and fatigue resistance on AISI 4140 type steel. cooling rate delayed quenching...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... coefficient initial heat-flux density liquid quenchants oil quenching polymer quenching quenching temperature gradient This section includes discussion on probes for laboratory tests and resultant curves, the scope of laboratory tests, and the calculation of the heat...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract Spray quenching refers to a wide variety of quenching processes that involve heat removal facilitated by the impingement of a quenchant medium on a hot metal surface. This article provides information on the basic concepts of spray quenching, and discusses the most commonly used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... determine gas pressure, vacuum level, gas flow, and gas composition. It focuses on their measuring quenchant characteristics, including bulk temperature, viscosity, composition, and cooling efficiency. The article describes the procedures for detecting variability in the incoming product. It presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
...-extraction characteristics of a liquid quenchant. It provides information on heat generated microstructural field evolution and information on the analysis and characterization of heat transfer boundary conditions. heat transfer liquid quenching microstructural evolution quenching heat transfer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article describes the advantages of martempering and the use of oil and salt as quenchants in the martempering process. It also discusses safety precautions to be followed by an operator and reviews the steels that are suitable for martempering. The article provides information on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... composition, and case depth, and presents examples that relate dimensional change to several shapes that vary in complexity. It also provides information on the quenchant removal and salt removal processes, lists the applications of liquid carburizing in cyanide baths, and discusses the process and importance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... Abstract This article, with the aid of illustrations and curves, describes an experiment used to understand the cooling characteristics and transformation behavior of steel wires during patenting. The two aqueous polymer quenchants used as alternatives for lead baths, are carboxymethyl...