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quench severity

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... for carbon and low-alloy steels. As a single-value parameter alternative to Grossmann H-values, QFA is a potential method to qualify a quenching medium or process or to effectively monitor variation of quench severity due to either the quenchant or the system. The article describes the procedures for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006272
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... et al. ( Ref 34 ) indicated that several of the assumptions made in the original quench factor analysis by Evancho and Staley ( Ref 3 ) were inconsistent with experimental and theoretical findings. These assumptions are summarized as follows: Strength varies linearly with solute concentration...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... rate. It describes the quench sensitivity and severity of alloys, quench mechanisms and the different types of quenchants used in immersion, spray, and fog quenching. The article provides a detailed description of the quench-factor analysis that mainly includes residual stress and distortion, which can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006286
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... ), preliminary values were derived from the thermal diffusivity of titanium alloys and for the quenching severity of various media used in heat treating them. Because titanium alloys have much lower thermal conductivity than steel (6.7 W/m ⋅ K for Ti-6Al-4V versus 53.6 W/m ⋅ K for typical carbon steel at room...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... Abstract Quenchant agitation can be obtained by circulating quenchant in a quench tank through pumps and impellers. The selection of the agitation method depends on the tank design, type and volume of the quenchant, part design, and the severity of quench required. This article describes flow...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... main variables in salt quenching include temperature, agitation, water content, and residence time (see the article “Salt Quenching” in ASM Handbook Volume 4A.) Salt baths are used for surface hardening of steels in several ways. One way is a salt quench after carburizing in an atmospheric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... transfer). Source: Ref 3 The duration of the cooling process of the workpiece and the spreading velocity of the wetting front depend on several physical properties of the specimen and the quenching medium. The departure of steam bubbles from the surface is a function of their size, which produces...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... 80.6 W/m · K Density 898 kg/m 3 Specific heat 1.36 kJ/kg · K Viscosity 0.413 MPa · s Source: Ref 1 Narazaki and Ninomiya ( Ref 1 ) created cooling curves for several liquid quenchants using a cylindrical silver probe ( Fig. 1 ). During molten sodium quenching there is no vapor...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003103
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... results obtained both in terms of the quenching severity required and the section size in which the desired results can be obtained. The above method of rating differs from rating in terms of ideal critical diameter, which is based on hardening not to a given hardness but to 50% martensite at the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... twist or bend noticed after quenching, snagging of a band saw blade, expensive rework as a result of machining distortion, or even a severely cracked component emerging from a quench tank. Precipitation-hardened aluminum alloys have been the major enabling material technology of aviation since their...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003836
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... Abstract This article illustrates the three techniques for producing glassy metals, namely, liquid phase quenching, atomic or molecular deposition, and external action technique. Devitrification of an amorphous alloy can proceed by several routes, including primary crystallization, eutectoid...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... classified as contact thermographic methods using cholesteric liquid crystals, thermally quenched phosphors, and heat-sensitive paints, and noncontact techniques using hand-held infrared scanners, high-resolution infrared imaging systems, and thermal wave interferometer systems. Contact thermometric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... considered when selecting the proper quenching procedure. Several factors are involved in the mechanism of quenching, which, for the purpose of this section, is defined as rapid cooling. These factors include: Internal conditions of the workpiece that affect the supply of heat to the surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... steel probe into different concentrations of nanofluids yielded varying peak heat-transfer coefficients (HTCs) and Grossmann quenching severity factors ( Ref 126 ). Jagannath and Prabhu measured the interfacial peak HTC of water at 1280 W/m 2 K and the peak HTC, having decreased from 1400 to 965 W/m 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006287
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... hafnium, quench sensitivity increases with increasing reduction, most severely when the alloys have been cold worked. The coherency at the dispersoid interface, which remains between matrix and Al 3 Zr (or Al 3 Hf) particles after working, disappears as a result of recrystallization during solution heat...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003204
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses different heat treating techniques, including quenching, homogenizing, annealing, stress relieving, stress equalizing, quench hardening, strain hardening, tempering, solution heat treating, and precipitation heat treating (age hardening) for different grades of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006271
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... also discusses simulation of the quenching process, and provides examples for aluminum quenching simulation. aluminum alloys heat treatment heat treatment simulation model mechanical test microstructure quenching yield strength HEAT TREATMENT SIMULATION helps to predict heat treatment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... article also describes the generation of thermal, transformation, and hardening residual stresses. bearing steel case hardening distortion elastic plastic deformation heat treatment linear elastic deformation phase transformation quenching residual stress retained austenite steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005967
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... resistance to distortion or cracking upon quenching. In addition, twin-type martensite is susceptible to cracking upon transforming and improper quenching severity ( Ref 7 ). Fig. 11 Effect of austenite grain size on quench cracking frequency. Source: Ref 14 The original microstructure and...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003196
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... curves showing quenching and tempering. (a) Conventional process. (b) Martempering. (c) Modified martempering Any steel part or grade of steel responding to oil quenching can be martempered to provide similar physical properties. The quenching severity of molten salt is greatly enhanced by...