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quantum detectors

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It then describes infrared detectors, such as quantum detectors and thermal/nonquantum detectors, for thermoelastic stress analysis. The article discusses the theoretical aspects for producing thermoelastic stress analysis data and the applications amenable to thermoelastic stress analysis. It concludes...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001732
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of source output, monochromator efficiency, and detector response on wavelength. Spectra can be corrected to eliminate these distortions within experimental error. Various methods have been described for spectral correction, including use of thermopiles, quantum counters, calibrated phototubes with factory...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Detection and quantification of elements with atomic number 5 or higher (older energy dispersive units with beryllium window detectors are limited to atomic number 11 or higher) Typical Uses Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis for major and minor elements in metals and alloys...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... resolution of a real-time system is principally defined by the size and thickness of the detectors (or grain size of fluorescent crystals), the raster scan of the television system, and, for quantum statistical reasons, the intensity of the radiation. The dependencies are plotted in Fig. 4 for a typical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of the electrons are aligned with the magnetic field; in the other, the magnetic moments are aligned opposite or antiparallel to this external field. In terms of quantum mechanics, the spin quantum number S of an electron equals ± 1 2 . Quantum conditions dictate that resolved components of quantum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006456
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... projections. Fig. 3 Computed tomography process CT Scanning System The CT scanning system contains a radiation source and radiation detector along with a precision manipulator to scan a testpiece from different angles. The x-ray detector is usually a flat panel detector consisting of a 2-D...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... (EDS) that comprise x-ray tubes, the analyzing system, and detectors. The fundamentals of EDS operation are described. The article also provides useful information on preparation of various samples, explaining the qualitative and quantitative analyses of EDS. It reviews the applications of the x-ray...
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... in painted surfaces in housing ( Ref 1 ). Continuing advances in computer and detector technology have led to further advances in the capabilities and sensitivity of portable XRF instruments for applications such as soil analysis and nondestructive qualitative and quantitative analysis of inorganic elements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006656
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of the original x-ray photon. Due to a large number of losses, the energy resolution of the detector is poor, and as such, it cannot be used to resolve x-ray photons due to Kα and Kβ radiation. However, it has a high quantum efficiency and a low dead time, making it the ideal detector for the point-intensity...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... of molecular-scattering phenomena. The molecular-scattering phenomena that must be considered are Rayleigh scattering, Stokes scattering (the normal Raman effect), and anti-Stokes scattering. The nature of this scattered radiation is predicted by quantum theory and classical electromagnetic theory...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... 1 ). It belongs to the class of molecular-scattering phenomena. The molecular-scattering phenomena that must be considered are Rayleigh scattering, Stokes scattering (the normal Raman effect), and anti-Stokes scattering. The nature of this scattered radiation is predicted by quantum theory...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005853
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
.... This is the advantage of an IR thermometer: it can measure temperatures as low as –50 °C (–50 °F), and it can work 24 hours a day without a break. To measure IR energy requires a detector. Infrared thermometers use two basic types of detectors: thermal or quantum. A thermal detector is actually heated or cooled...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...). Digital Radiography Digital radiography involves the formation of an image by scanning a linear array of discrete detectors (or x-ray sensors) along the object being irradiated. Here, the radiographic output of the detectors is directly digitized and the images are generated in near real time...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... detectors of the charge-coupled- and charge-injection-type devices. With these detectors, development of compact miniature spectrometers for special applications is another strong trend. The previously rather common sources of direct current arcs and combustion flames are becoming obsolete, and very few...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006668
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... housed inside a specimen chamber, typically below the electron-optics column. Electromagnetic lenses below the electron gun focus the electron beam to a small probe at the sample surface. Scanning coils deflect the electron probe across the sample surface, and detectors housed either in the specimen...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003653
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
.... Fig. 14 Infrared thermography. (a) Standard setup of heat lamps, sample, and infrared detector for reflectance (left) or transmission mode (right). (b) A thermograph of a lap joint showing two hot spots at fasteners indicating possible corrosion products The superconducting quantum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... takes place as described in the article “Introduction to Diffraction Methods” in this Division to produce a diffraction pattern. The diffraction pattern is recorded using a point, line, or area detector to be digitally processed. In XRPD analysis, samples usually exist as finely divided powder...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... part of their energy by thermal accommodation and become trapped in the high-field region. The gas atoms then execute a hopping motion across the tip surface until they become ionized by a quantum mechanical tunneling process termed field ionization. Fig. 1 Field ion microscope. Fig. 2...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... when one electron of the indicated quantum numbers n , l , j is missing. Figure 2 shows such a diagram for uranium. Also shown are the x-ray and spectroscopic notations corresponding to the n , l , j quantum numbers. Fig. 2 Energy-level diagram of an atom. The energy of the atom...