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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., as applied to microscopy of materials. The article describes the basic concepts of sampling and resolution and quantization of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It discusses the acquisition of a digital image that accurately represents the sample under...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001733
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... by higher energy radiation and L electrons by lower energy radiation. Fig. 4 Excitation of electronic energy levels. (a) Transition between two quantized energy levels. (b) Photoejection of electrons by x-radiation Fig. 5 Transition diagram for copper. (a) Absorption curve. (b...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... of technologies that are capable of taking computer-aided design (CAD) models and converting them to a physical form or part. This process is automatic, generally independent of the model geometry, and does not require special tooling or fixtures. Complex, three-dimensional (3-D) contours are quantized...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001729
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Book Chapter

By S. Lampman
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006645
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by higher-energy radiation and L-electrons by lower-energy radiation Fig. 10 Excitation of electronic energy levels. (a) Transition between two quantized energy levels. (b) Photoejection of electrons by x-radiation Abstract Abstract This article provides a detailed account of X-ray...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is released as the electrons from other orbitals drop into the vacant orbital. These electron transitions are of distinct energy jumps, that is, they are quantized, and the radiation emitted has specific wavelengths. Therefore, x-rays exiting the target have a few strong characteristic concentrations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., that is, they are quantized, and the radiation emitted has specific wavelengths. Therefore, x-rays exiting the target have a few strong characteristic concentrations of specific wavelengths superimposed on the white radiation. The characteristic spectrum of an x-ray tube is simple, and a few wavelengths have strong peaks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... the loop. The consequence of this is that the magnetic flux contained in the loop will be quantized in units of the flux quantum (Φ 0 ) ( Ref 57 ). When a thick nonsuperconducting barrier interrupts the current path, the supercurrent through the barrier is zero and the phases on either side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005153
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005428
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... orientations and allocated randomly to the orientations of the grains of the 3-D microstructure. This produces a 3-D microstructure with the correct texture but random MDF. This MDF is calculated and quantized into n b bins, such that S k is the number of boundaries with misorientations between k Δθ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... ) and react with the valence electrons of the workpiece, which are of comparable energy ( Ref 20 ). This energy transfer is quantized (massless photons travel at only the speed of light, unlike electrons that can have variable velocity); hence, the photon loses all or none of its energy to a prospective...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001750
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... to this external field. In terms of quantum mechanics, the spin quantum number S of an electron equals ± 1 2 . Quantum conditions dictate that resolved components of quantum numbers along an axis of quantization must differ by one. The two possible orientations of these electrons in the applied...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001730
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
...) and the flame. The flame desolvates, vaporizes, then atomizes (dissociates to free atoms) the fine sample droplets produced by the nebulizer. Next is the monochromator, which isolates a wavelength of light characteristic of a particular quantized transition between electronic energy levels of the outer...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... defined, energy can be lost or gained by the molecule only in quantized or discrete amounts. Therefore, two types of scattered radiation result from these inelastic scattering events. Stokes radiation, the first type, is observed for molecules that gain a vibrational or rotational quantum of energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003052
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627081788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.9781627082136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.9781627082006
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6