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quantitative microstructural measurement

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006682
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... Abstract This article reviews many commonly used stereological counting measurements and the relationships based on these parameters. The discussion covers the processes involved in sampling and specimen preparation. Quantitative microstructural measurements are described including volume...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003248
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... gained wide usage in quality control and research studies. Examples of the applications of quantitative metallography have been reviewed by Underwood ( Ref 1 ). Basically, two types of measurements of microstructures are made. The first group includes measurements of depths (i.e., depth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... in practice. Numerous geometric attributes of three-dimensional microstructures can be estimated in an unbiased manner from the counting measurements that can be performed on representative metallographic planes, without involving any assumptions whatsoever. Modern quantitative metallographic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of samples prone to abrasion damage and artifacts for quantitative image analysis. abrasion artifacts abrasion damage computer technology microhardness analysis microstructural analysis optical microscopy quantitative image analysis sample preparation surface analysis surface finishing...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The quantitative characterization of fracture surface geometry, that is, quantitative fractography, can provide useful information regarding the microstructural features and failure mechanisms that govern material fracture. This article is devoted to the fractographic techniques...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0009000
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... conditions with drawing, quantitative measurements and surface analyses are conducted throughout the wear tests, including surface roughness, surface morphology and microstructure, material transfer and buildup of coating debris, interfacial friction, surface temperatures, and wear rate, as discussed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
.... The mathematical relationships developed in quantitative stereology are described in the article “Quantitative Image Analysis” and “Quantitative Characterization and Representation of Global Microstructural Geometry” in Volume 9 of ASM Handbook . Knowing the roughness parameters enables simple...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... modifications in classical stereological formulas. On the other hand, measurement can be simpler in digital space than in real space ( Ref 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ). Automatic microstructural quantification requires an understanding of quantitative metallography and digital imaging...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... analyzers metallography microscopy microstructure quantitative determination sample preparation Overview Introduction Image analysis minimizes the influence of operator fatigue, which reduces the accuracy and reproducibility of manual measurements. In addition, although microstructural...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003228
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the merits and limitations of these techniques and describes the various uses of NDT, including leak detection, metrology, structure or microstructure characterization, stress-strain response determination, and rapid identification of metals and alloys. flaw detection identification of metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... and quantitative analysis of inorganic elements in archaeological objects. Portable XRF instruments cannot generally provide the low detection limits attained by laboratory methods, but the sensitivity of portable XRF instruments has increased and made possible their use for measurement of lead and other metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0001838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... the fracture surface area, it is relatively difficult to obtain. The parameter, R L , on the other hand, is an experimental quantity that is measured directly from a vertical section. Several analytical methods have been proposed for determining R S (see the article “Quantitative Fractography...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Qualitative and semi-quantitative elemental analyses on microstructural features as small as ∼2 μm Identifying crystalline compounds and determining crystallographic orientations of microstructural features as small as ∼1 μm (recently developed capability—not currently widely used, but likely to become so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... needed for microscopic examinations. Such surface preparation techniques as etching are frequently prolonged such that surface features are greatly enhanced; therefore, quantitative measurements should not be conducted on macroetched samples. Heavy etching accentuates any microstructural inhomogeneity...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003058
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... a combination of fracture mechanics and empirical relations to convert measurements obtained from FSM to quantitative estimates for the pertinent fracture parameters. Fracture surface markings also are used to develop realistic models for failure mechanisms in a new material. Fracture Features Once...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 09 June 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04c.a0005857
EISBN: 978-1-62708-167-2
... by the application of non-destructive technology. It describes the processes involved in destructive methods, such as surface hardness measurement, induction hardening pattern and heat-affected zone inspection, and the examination of microstructure before and after induction hardening. It also discusses non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003742
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... microscope (SEM) as well as three dimensional x-ray diffraction that now enable the quantitative and statistical measurement of microstructure parameters. The driving force for these investigations has been the need for technological improvements combined with scientific interest, since microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006476
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... and applied, along with microstructural variations such as hardness and carbon content. When measuring MBN using the traditional method, the sample is magnetized with an alternating magnetic field (typically 125 Hz), and the signal containing Barkhausen noise is amplified and filtered in a frequency range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005798
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... The microscopic method of estimating carbon content is best used on steels with which experience has been gained in correlating microstructures on samples subjected to similar cooling rates with carbon gradients determined by quantitative carbon measurements. If annealed samples are used, annealing must...