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quantitative microscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Quantitative image analysis has expanded the capabilities of surface analysis significantly with the use of computer technology. This article provides an overview of the quantitative image analysis and optical microscopy. It describes the various steps involved in surface preparation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... to microscopy of materials. The article describes the basic concepts of sampling and resolution and quantization of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. It discusses the acquisition of a digital image that accurately represents the sample under observation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003057
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
.... Chemical analysis is carried out by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and plasma-emission spectrophotometry. Phase analysis is done by X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic methods, thermal analysis, and quantitative analysis. Techniques used for microstructural analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... techniques include: Sieve analysis Quantitative microscopy Fraunhofer diffraction Neutron/x-ray scattering Time-of-flight Sedimentation Electrical zone sensing Mie diffraction Centrifugal sedimentation Packed bed permeability (Fisher subsieve analyzer) Photon correlation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...), but analyses are less quantitative. Analyses originate from very near surface region (first few atomic layers), so sample surfaces must be atomically clean or results will be representative of surface contaminants rather than the underlying sample. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) Terminology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and contrast enhancement. In addition, powerful software packages are available for quantitative image analysis, including the measurement of size distributions, shape factors, and modal analysis of the phases present ( Ref 18 ). Special Instrumentation and Accessory Equipment Scanning Electron Microscopy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... and operation, mass spectra and their interpretation, and applications of AP microanalysis. electric field field ion microscopy field ionization point defects quantitative analysis sample preparation semiconductors spatial resolution stress time-of-flight mass spectrometry Overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
...) Quantitative analysis (precision of +20% relative standard deviation) Macroanalysis or bulk analysis Microanalysis (≤10 μm) Surface analysis Major component (>10 wt%) Minor component (0.1–10 wt%) Trace component (1–1000 ppm, or 0.0001–0.1 wt%) Structure Morphology Atomic force microscopy N...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and orientation. In the 1940s, fracture surfaces were studied using light microscopy ( Ref 1 ). Such observations were useful for qualitative description of fracture surface topography. However, low magnifications and depth of field limited the utility of the technique for quantitative characterization...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... probe X-ray microanalysis inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ion-scattering spectroscopy material characterization microanalysis powders quantitative analysis scanning electron microscopy surface analysis X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy X-ray powder diffraction BULK...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006652
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with image analysis to obtain the average diameter and length of the nanotubes. The carbon nanotube loading is also important and affects the mechanical properties as well; therefore, the residual mass of the nanotubes left after combustion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... and Quantitative Interpretation of Microstructures in Cemented Carbides , Science of Hard Materials , Viswanadham R. K. , et al. , Ed., Plenum Press , 1983 , p 233 – 259 13. Gurland J. , Application of Quantitative Microscopy to Cemented Carbides , Practical Applications of Quantitative...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the operation and capabilities of surface analysis methods of metals, including scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be sampled to later perform chemical analysis using other methods. Electron microprobe analysis or electron probe microanalysis is an alternative to scanning electron microscopy for performing chemical analysis. Electron probe microanalysis in conjunction with WDS is considered more quantitative than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... up carbon in order to avoid formation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries during cooling. In addition, stainless steels that contain selenium or sulfur to improve their machinability are extremely difficult to weld. Therefore, to determine whether the steel is weldable, quantitative analyses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003249
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is obtained. When classified by the types of information they obtain, techniques are often classified as the following: Elemental: What elements are present (qualitative elemental analysis)? In what concentration is each element present (quantitative elemental analysis)? Structural: How...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... of the resolution and depth of field by several orders of magnitude. This enables images of much higher magnification in the SEM (>100,000×) and a greater depth of field of up to 100 times that of light microscopy. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis information can also be obtained using an energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) is capable of quantitative measurements of constituents at the major (concentration C > 10 wt%), minor (1 wt% ≤ C ≤ 10 wt%), and trace (0.05 wt% < C < 1 wt%) levels. In tests on known materials, demonstrated accuracy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
..., and fatigue fracture with illustrations. It discusses microanalysis with a focus on the method of light microscopy and includes information of scanning electron microscope in fractography. The article also explains the characteristics of solidification, transformation, deformation structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... Abstract This article reviews the essential parts of the complex process of quantitative image analysis to assist automatic image analysis in laboratories. It describes the basic difference between the bias of classical manual stereological analysis and quantitative image analysis. The article...