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pyrophosphate baths

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., the bath draws approximately 0.3 A/L (2 A/gal) through the solution. At 12 V, the bath draws 0.4 A/L (3 A/gal). Concentration limits and operating conditions of copper pyrophosphate plating baths Table 3 Concentration limits and operating conditions of copper pyrophosphate plating baths...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths, and operating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract Copper can be electrodeposited from numerous electrolytes. Cyanide and pyrophosphate alkalines, along with sulfate and fluoborate acid baths, are the primary electrolytes used in copper plating. This article provides information on the chemical composition, plating baths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001310
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...; agitate. (c) This bath may be used for all treatable alloys in all forms. This bath must be used for castings that have not been pickled after being sand blasted. (d) Water from steam condensate or water treated by ion exchange should be used when available instead of well or hard tap water. (e...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... 18 36 17 10 20 Sodium metasilicate, anhydrous 37 … 12 … 15 10 Sodium metasilicate, hydrated … 60 … … … … Tetrasodium pyrophosphate … 20 9 20 20 65 Sodium tripolyphosphate … … … … 50 … Trisodium phosphate … … … 10 … … Fatty acid esters 1 … 3 0.6...
Book Chapter

By Alan Blair
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... , Farr J.P.G. , and Street J. , What Chance the Elimination of Cyanide? , Trans. Inst. Met. Finish. , Vol 69 ( No. 3 ), p 8 – 10 • “Bath for Electroplating of Precious Metal Alloys,” German Patent No. DE 2445538 , 1976 • Blair A. , Formulating High Speed Gold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006491
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...) Pyrophosphate Zn plate (after Cu strike) 12.5 0.5 18–45 24–30 75–86 1–3 10–30 Pyrophosphate (a) Work for which copper strike plating may be used. Instead of being transferred from the strike bath to a high-speed sodium or potassium electrolyte for subsequent copper plating, the work may...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive blast...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., diethyldithiocarbamate, 2,2′-dipyridyl, potassium ferrocyanide, vanadium pentoxide, nickel chloride, and polyethylene glycol Table 2 Aminoborane- and borohydride-reduced electroless nickel plating solutions Constituent or condition Aminoborane Borohydride Bath 7 Bath 8 Bath 9 Bath 10...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003213
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... The article describes common cleaning processes, including alkaline, electrolytic, solvent, emulsion, molten salt bath, ultrasonic and acid cleaning as well as pickling and abrasive blasting. It also explains how to select the appropriate process for a given soil type and surface composition. abrasive...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003216
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the steps, bath composition and characteristics, equipment, plating rate, deposit thickness, and applications for different types of nonelectrolytic deposition processes, including electroless nickel plating, electroless copper plating and mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... (140–180 °F) Immersion time 2–5 min Nonetching cleaners Sodium pyrophosphate and sodium metasilicate Total of 15–75 g (2–10 oz) Water, to make 4 L (1 gal) Temperature of bath 60–70 °C (140–160 °F) Immersion time 2–5 min Trisodium phosphate and sodium metasilicate Total...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001227
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... … 70 … … 15–25 … Sodium acid pyrophosphate … 16.5 … 16.5 16.5 … … Sodium bisulfate … 80 … 80 80 … … Sulfuric acid … … … … … … 55–70 Nonionic wetting agent (a) 5 … 5 … … 7–20 … Anionic wetting agent … 3 … 3 3 … … Other additives (b) (b...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001739
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... is gone, then higher Selenium Metal Metal Use hydroxylamine-HCl if tellurium is present, otherwise H 2 SO 3 Zirconium Pyrophosphate Pyrophosphate Ignite at low temperature until filter carbon is gone, then higher Niobium Hydroxide Oxide Ion exchange separation from tantalum, and so...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... spontaneous decomposition. While most of these solutions are proprietary, some typical formulations ( Ref 2 ) are: Composition Bath 1 Bath 2 g/L oz/gal g/L oz/gal Nickel chloride 119 15 … … Nickel sulfate … … 50 6.5 Sodium hypophosphite 106 14 50 6.5 Sodium pyrophosphate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in deposit out of specification Incorrect bath composition Analysis and adjust Poor solderability Low thickness Check and adjust. Organic contamination in the bath Analyze for carbon and treat if necessary. Copper contamination in the bath Check and do low-current dummy plating if necessary...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001255
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... a pyrophosphate base have been used commercially with limited success. Brass solutions using polyhydroxy aliphatic chemicals have also been used commercially with limited success. Formulas for low-pH brass plating solutions are given in Table 1 . The copper cyanide content of the plating solution serves...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Sodium pyrophosphate and sodium metasilicate Total of 15–75 g (2–10 oz) Water, to make 4 L (1 gal) Temperature of bath 60–70 °C (140–160 °F) Immersion time 2–5 min Solution 2 Trisodium phosphate and sodium metasilicate Total of 15–75 g (2–10 oz) Water, to make 4 L (1 gal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... degreasing baths contain numerous additives. Silicates have good emulsifying action and dispersing properties. During cleaning of aluminum, zinc, and zinc-coated steel, a thin layer of silicate deposits on the surface and inhibits the attack of the metal by the alkaline solution. Phosphates, pyrophosphates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
..., boron oxide, sodium fluoride, and sodium pyrophosphate. Source: Ref 5 Molten Chloride Salts Molten chloride salts are used in various tempering processes or as neutral rinse baths to remove adhering cyanide or nitrate salts while maintaining the work at high temperatures. Typical operating...