1-20 of 100 Search Results for

purification process

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electrochemical refining is the purification process for producing commercially pure metals from crude metals. This article describes the principles of electrochemical reactions. It discusses the physical properties of the basic components of electrochemical refining cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... is meaningless and unacceptable for some technical fields. Vacuum melting can result in a purification process based on preferential evaporation of solute. The degree of purification is dependent on the ratio of the vapor pressure of the solute to that of the solvent. For a high degree of purification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... vacuum melting processes. The primary purification reaction occurring in the process is the removal of melt contained oxygen by means of a reaction with carbon to form carbon monoxide. A number of casting processes can provide near-net shape superalloy cast parts, but essentially all components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... Institute Co., Ltd. and Weiqiao Aluminum Smelter, China Abstract Abstract This article describes the Bayer process for the purification of alumina. The process includes four major stages: digestion, clarification, precipitation, and calcination. The article discusses the aluminum electrolytic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., including recovery from bauxite, zinc ore and secondary recovery process and purification. The article briefly describes the fabrication process of gallium arsenide crystals. Furthermore, the article gives a short note on world supply and demand of gallium and concludes with research and development...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Pyrometallurgical Reduction Pyrometallurgical Process Equipment Pyrometallurgical Refining Leaching Processes Solution Purification Metal Deposition Liquation Refining with Gaseous Reagents Reducing Agents Reduction of Nonoxide Compounds Slags Reverberatory Furnaces Blast...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (going back to the winning of ores, if desired), melt purification from scrap recycling, and alloy additions. Chemical processes are also involved in making molds and cores, the casting and solidification processes, the microstructural development of alloys, and the phase changes that occur after casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of dissolved solids always carry through with the steam. Also, at higher pressures, there is some vaporous carryover. Excessive carryover of impurities can damage superheaters, steam turbines, or downstream process equipment. Deposition and corrosion in boilers are controlled by water purification...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... nitrogen for 30 min to remove the oxygen ( Ref 3 ). All metals that contact the molten salt during purification must be carefully selected to avoid contamination from transfer tubes, thermocouple wells, the makeup vessel, and the container itself. This selection process may be an experiment in itself...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006334
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
... treatments and reduction of impurities are discussed in other articles in this Volume. For cast iron, the most important purification process is desulfurization, which is required in the production of ductile and compacted graphite irons. While deoxidation, a very important purification process in steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... energies. Thus, the electronic configurations play an important role in the vaporization process, and in turn on the preparation, purification, and physical and chemical metallurgy of the lanthanide metals. The second most extensively studied property of rare earth metals—second only to crystal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., and gases, must be reduced. While deoxidation—a very important purification process in steel—is not common practice in cast iron because of the deoxidation effect of high levels of carbon and silicon, the oxygen level in the melt is important because it is directly related to the nucleation and growth...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... . Internal stress is tensile (indicated by a positive number). Source: Ref 1 Abstract Abstract This article discusses the process considerations and deposit properties of nickel plating. It describes the Watts solution and the anode materials used. The article focuses on the nickel plating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... material sources ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). The key features of today's modern APT processes are an intermediate solution of sodium tungstate, Na 2 WO 4, , and multiple purification steps, one of which is either a solid ion exchange (SIX) or a liquid ion exchange (LIX) ( Ref 4 ). Representative diagrams...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
.... Final annealed in vacuum at 1260 °C (2300 °F) for 1 h. (a) Longitudinal cross section showing banding from residual cold work resulting from yttria stabilization. ASTM grain size 9. (b) Same processing, with added 30 min final anneal at 2000 °C (3630 °F). Longitudinal cross section. ASTM grain size 8...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... 4.2 Unsaturated polyesters 3.8 Ureas, melamines 2.9 Epoxies, alkyds 1.2 Total 23.9 (a) Including polyethylene terephthalate Comparison of solvolysis processes for polyethylene terephthalate Table 3 Comparison of solvolysis processes for polyethylene terephthalate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004148
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... of the periodic table of the elements), has to be removed completely from zirconium, since hafnium absorbs neutrons. The corresponding purification process is performed early during the processing, by distillation of molten chlorides ( Ref 1 ). Pure zirconium exhibits two crystallographic structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (synthetic gas) coolers and then water quenched to remove particulates and water-soluble impurities such as NH 3 and chlorides. After quenching, H 2 S is removed in one of several commercially available gas-purification systems, for instance, the Selexol process. The purified gas is then fed to a gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Inorganic Compounds Organogermanium Compounds Ore Processing Purification Use as a Semiconductor Use in Infrared Optics Environmental Impact World reserves of germanium have been estimated at 4000 Mg (4400 tons), but it is impossible to discuss reserves without considering price...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... coherent precipitates (GP zones) that scatter electrons very efficiently; thus, the observed initial decrease is conductivity. Formation of the GP zones and other coherent particles, for example, S″, is governed by a thermally activated process. However, these zones, formed rapidly at temperatures above...