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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... engineering (durable) plastics. Each of these materials presents unique challenges for disposal, collection, identification, separation, and purification. However, new technologies are being developed steadily, and prospects are good for increased recycling of these resins. Plastics recycling is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... hydrometallurgical steps may be broadly classified into leaching, purification and metal deposition using aqueous solutions. Although these process steps are predominantly conducted at ambient temperatures, higher temperatures near the boiling point of water or above it (as in pressure leaching) may be necessary for...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... (302 °F). As the aging temperature of the 2024 aluminum alloy is increased above 150 °C, the conductivity increases rather drastically. This increase can be interpreted in terms of the rate of purification of the aluminum matrix from the solute atoms, that is, copper and magnesium in the case of 2024...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (going back to the winning of ores, if desired), melt purification from scrap recycling, and alloy additions. Chemical processes are also involved in making molds and cores, the casting and solidification processes, the microstructural development of alloys, and the phase changes that occur after casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...-grain coating that contains incorporated sulfur. The sulfur causes the deposit to be electrochemically more reactive than sulfur-free matte, polished, or semibright nickel deposits. Decomposition products of the additives accumulate in solution with time and are removed by purification with activated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are used for water purification or desalinization, consist of polyamide on top of a porous polysulfone deposited on a polyester substrate. During purification/desalinization, the membranes are irreversibly degraded by oxidation. Depth profiles of anion and cation species provided a detailed evaluation...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... rheological and firing behavior are not affected. At higher contents, the firing conditions must be adjusted to prevent swelling and deformation of the tiles. Another waste material produced during tile manufacture is exhausted lime from purification of gases during the firing process. For unglazed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... discussed as it applies to steel structures and prepainted steel. Recently, new functions, such as a NO x purification coating material using titanium dioxide photocatalyst, have been added to coatings ( Ref 1 ). In order to preserve global environments, increasing numbers of environmentally friendly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... chloride Chlorination of toluene Chemical HCl absorbers Recovery of by-product HCl Bromine, crude Steam and bromine condensation Chemical Condensers … Bromine, pure Purification from chlorine and organics Chemical Boilers, condensers, complete purification plants … Bromides, organic...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003149
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is still widely used to express the purity or grade of both unalloyed zirconium and zirconium alloys. The oxygen content of Kroll process sponge varies from about 500 to 2000 ppm, depending on the number of purification steps and the effectiveness of each step. A hardness of 125 HB indicates soft...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005190
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... maurer diagram solubility steel thermodynamic properties structural diagrams multicomponent iron-carbon system THE STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES of cast metals are sensitive to numerous impurities. Because purification of melts generally adds considerable cost to castings, the lowest cost and surest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., purification with zinc dust, treatment with activated carbon, and filtration. Sodium carbonate forms in the cyanide bath as a result of the decomposition of sodium cyanide and the reaction of sodium cyanide with carbon dioxide from the air. The preferred method of agitation, if used, is mechanical because...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006670
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... secondary purification step is performed in a chemical reaction producing trichlorosilane or silane gas, which is subsequently purified by fractional distillation and converted back to silicon through chemical decomposition ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The crystal growth process itself provides another degree of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 27 April 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v03.a0006222
EISBN: 978-1-62708-163-4
... purification? Obviously, one or more external conditions must be altered, with the temperature and pressure being most important. Although it is possible to change haphazardly the temperature and pressure of a metal until the desired effect is produced, it is much easier to choose the optimal conditions from...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
..., highly automated furnace Metal production and recycling Production of calcium, barium, lithium, strontium, and magnesium; recycling of hard metals; purification of alloys or melts; removal of zinc and lead Thermic/alumino-thermic vacuum distillation; leaching with zinc and subsequent vacuum...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003032
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
..., food processing equipment, chemical processing equipment, camera and watch cases, automotive and aerospace components, and water purification devices. Table 5 Physical properties and service characteristics of polysulfone resin and fiber-resin composites Properties Neat resin 30% glass...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... representation of the ECM system for finishing of a die or other complex shapes. The major components include the workpiece, cathode tool, electrolyte, power supply, and electrolyte circulating and purification system. A low voltage (8 to 30 V) is normally applied across the electrodes. A small gap (0.2 to 1 mm...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
..., fragrances, industrial chemicals, pesticides, and pollutants. HPLC/UHPLC may be used for identification (e.g., of illicit drugs in urine), for quantitation (e.g., of sugars and sugar alcohols in food), or for purification (e.g., of an active pharmaceutical ingredient). In the original implementation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... rinsing, and good solution control and maintenance, prevent these contaminants from entering or building up in the bath, avoiding the need for frequent purification. Copper pyrophosphate solutions are tolerant of other metallic contamination. Proprietary brighteners are available that refine the grain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5