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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and lutetium. This article classifies the rare earth metals based on their purity level, which are designated as research grades (>99.8% pure) and commercial grades (95% - 98% pure), and describes the preparation and purification, including solid-state electrolysis. It further discusses physical, mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., including recovery from bauxite, zinc ore and secondary recovery process and purification. The article briefly describes the fabrication process of gallium arsenide crystals. Furthermore, the article gives a short note on world supply and demand of gallium and concludes with research and development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-161-0
... strength is affected by the condition of the grain boundaries and, in particular, the grain-boundary carbide morphology and distribution. Vacuum induction melting offers more control over alloy composition and homogeneity than all other vacuum melting processes. The primary purification reaction occurring...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006483
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the Bayer process for the purification of alumina. The process includes four major stages: digestion, clarification, precipitation, and calcination. The article discusses the aluminum electrolytic process in terms of aluminum electrolysis cell design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003587
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... with the container material. This article describes a test method performed using thermal convection loop for corrosion studies of molten salts. It discusses the purification of salts that are used in the Oak Ridge molten salt reactor experiment. The article also reviews the corrosion characteristics of nitrates...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003599
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...Abstract Abstract Electrochemical refining is the purification process for producing commercially pure metals from crude metals. This article describes the principles of electrochemical reactions. It discusses the physical properties of the basic components of electrochemical refining cell...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001115
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., silicon crystals as large as 150 mm (6 in.) in diameter have been made by the floating zone method ( Ref 3 ). Vacuum Melting Zone refining of materials often is conducted in a dynamic vacuum in order to enhance the degree of purification. However, many metals—particularly those with high melting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
..., as deposits accumulate, they restrict flow to the surface. Typical boiler deposits are largely hardness precipitates (calcium and magnesium salts) and metal oxides. The nature of these deposits is typically a function of the makeup water purification system. Hardness deposits are most common with softened...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006121
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... 2 O, is the main intermediate used in the production of tungsten oxide and metal powders. This compound is a result of the hydrometallurgical purification and separation of various tungsten ore concentrates and secondary raw material sources ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 ). The key features of today's modern...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Decomposition products of the additives accumulate in solution with time and are removed by purification with activated carbon. In modern solutions, continuous filtration through active carbon removes deleterious decomposition products without significant removal of the addition agents themselves. Several...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 9
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2004
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v09.a0003777
EISBN: 978-1-62708-177-1
... as a powder or sponge and is further purified in the solid or the liquid state. Solid-state purification occurs during sintering; liquid-state purification occurs during vacuum arc melting or electron beam melting in high vacuum. Consolidated high-purity tantalum has also been produced by the thermal...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003013
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... attention turned to the recycling of engineering (durable) plastics. Each of these materials presents unique challenges for disposal, collection, identification, separation, and purification. However, new technologies are being developed steadily, and prospects are good for increased recycling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13C
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13c.a0004151
EISBN: 978-1-62708-184-9
... (synthetic gas) coolers and then water quenched to remove particulates and water-soluble impurities such as NH 3 and chlorides. After quenching, H 2 S is removed in one of several commercially available gas-purification systems, for instance, the Selexol process. The purified gas is then fed to a gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006289
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... of the rate of purification of the aluminum matrix from the solute atoms, that is, copper and magnesium in the case of 2024 alloy. After isothermal aging at 190 °C (374 °F) for approximately 50 h, the final alternating-current conductivity as measured by the eddy-current method approaches the nominal value...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005189
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... (going back to the winning of ores, if desired), melt purification from scrap recycling, and alloy additions. Chemical processes are also involved in making molds and cores, the casting and solidification processes, the microstructural development of alloys, and the phase changes that occur after casting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... important for environmental reasons, germanium is precipitated, usually along with iron, during the purification of the ZnSO 4 electrolyte prior to electrolysis. Germanium is one of several impurities that have an adverse effect on zinc electrolysis. If the germanium concentration is high enough...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006078
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
.... However, the sponge is very strong and cannot be easily crushed to “release” the trapped MgCl 2 . The main drawback of Kroll's process is that the time required for purification of titanium sponge by vacuum distillation can exceed 4 to 5 days, depending on the size of the titanium sponge block. Since...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001247
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... solution clean-up, including removal of excess sodium carbonate, purification with zinc dust, treatment with activated carbon, and filtration. Formation and Elimination of Carbonate Sodium carbonate forms in the cyanide bath as a result of the decomposition of sodium cyanide and the reaction...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... + + 2 NH 3 + H 2 → M o + 2 NH 4 + Generally, processing begins with leaching of ores and includes purification and separation stages prior to reduction. Reduction potential may be estimated by comparing the electrochemical potential of the metal ion...