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pure plastic bending

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Published: 01 January 2000
Fig. 7 Pure plastic bending of strip specimen. (a) Geometry of deformation. R i = inner radius of curvature; R o = outer radius of curvature; R n = radius of curvature of the neutral axis; R u = radius of currently unstretched fiber; R c = current radius of curvature of original More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 19 Pure plastic bending of strip specimen. (a) Geometry of deformation. R i , inner radius of curvature; R o , outer radius of curvature; R n , radius of curvature of the neutral axis; R u , radius of currently unstretched fiber; R c , current radius of curvature of original More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...-plastic bending, and pure plastic bending. Sheet metal bendability is a critical factor in many forming operations. The article illustrates the derivation of two relevant bend-ductility equations. bendability bending bending stress elastic bending elastic-plastic bending flanging non...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... This article discusses the stress-strain relationships, strain curvature, and stress-moment equations for elastic, noncylindrical, elastic-plastic, and pure plastic bending conditions. It also reviews the distribution of residual stress and springback. stress-strain behavior bending deformation strain...
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 24 Simulated role of plasticity in springback for a draw-bend test. (a) Difference of springback angle (Δθ) for pure-elastic and elastoplastic springback simulations. (b) Differences in through-thickness stress distribution following pure-elastic and elastoplastic springback. R / t More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005131
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... state). This approach is used to reproduce some classical springback results in the remainder of this section. Rigid, Perfectly Plastic Result The simplest springback result for pure bending makes use of a rigid (i.e., no elastic strains), perfectly plastic (no strain hardening) material model...
Image
Published: 01 November 2010
Fig. 2 Residual stress and residual strain distributions in a rectangular beam after being subjected to plastic deformation under pure bending and then unloaded More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
.... It was necessary not only to control the specimen temperature accurately but also the ambient temperature for the machine to maintain constant system compliance. Considerable progress was made in developing a plastic equation of state for aluminum and identifying scaling laws for this and other pure metals...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... is a term used to describe a metal sheet bending process in which there is a concave hinge on the bending straight line. During the heating process, the heat input and cooling stream 1 ( Fig. 1 ) are combined to make the upper part of the sheet metal section (zone S 1 , Fig. 2 ) reach its plastic state...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of pure irons and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the grain-boundary cavitation; slip lines; intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003380
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
... and II data are generated using a mixed-mode bending (MMB) test ( 7 , 8 9 ). As shown in Fig. 3 , the apparent toughness generally increases monotonically between the pure opening mode I case and the pure shear mode II case. Furthermore, due to the complex micromechanisms involved, the scatter of test...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005169
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... q plan view area hp thickness direction mA interface; friction factor; strain- Q HR hardness; height max rate sensitivity exponent plastic constraint factor Brinell hardness MC r activation energy HSLA hexagonal close-packed MCS bending moment hT high-energy-rate forging MDO milliampere r0 radius...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.a0003320
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
... crack under shear. A , pure mode III; B , C , pure mode II Testing of Cylindrical Specimens Torsion-Rotating Bending Fatigue In a classical type of torsion-rotating bending fatigue test, cylindrical specimens similar to those for rotating bending fatigue are used ( Ref 2 ). A static...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005163
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... in determining the resultant springback, because this affects the conditions of deformation. For example, if a very small amount of stretching is superimposed during bending, springback can be reduced or even eliminated. Under pure bending, springback is proportional to R / t for cylindrical tooling ( Ref 15...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... approximately 9% Si and weighing 150 g/m 2 (0.5 oz/ft 2 ). Minimum radii are for no rust on the outside of the bend after exposure to air for 25 cycles consisting of 30 min at 595 °C (1100 °F) and 30 min of cooling. (b) Coating of commercially pure aluminum weighing 350 g/m 2 (1.15 oz/ft 2 ). Minimum bend...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005947
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... been the subject of scientific and industrial research for a very long time. Starting from pure empirical investigations, the understanding of the mechanisms and causes of distortion has significantly improved, not the least supported by modeling and simulation activities. The aim of this article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Fig. 9 Three-point bend test Fig. 10 Schematic of the bend region defining direction of principal stresses and strains For pure plastic bending, in which elastic deformation can be ignored, the maximum tensile fiber strain is: (Eq 17) ε 0 = ln R o R i...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... elastic fracture mechanics analysis, with some mention of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The article describes the probabilistic aspects of fatigue and fracture. Information on crack-growth simulation of the material is also provided. crack-growth simulation elastic-plastic fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... In a completely reversed cycle ( S min = − S max ), the mean stress is 0; in a pure tension pulsating load, the mean stress is S m = S a ; and in a pure compressive load, the mean stress is S m = − S a . The stress ratio is the algebraic ratio of two specified stress values in a stress cycle. Two...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of fracture mechanics. The fracture mechanics approach is an important part of stress analysis at the tips of sharp cracks or discontinuities. The article reviews fracture mechanics concepts, including linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and subcritical fracture mechanics...