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pure plastic bending

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 12
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1987
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v12.a0000601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-181-8
... Abstract This article is an atlas of fractographs that helps in understanding the causes and mechanisms of fracture of pure irons and in identifying and interpreting the morphology of fracture surfaces. The fractographs illustrate the grain-boundary cavitation; slip lines; intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is obvious that they are very different. For the simulations, the SC approach is used and the aggregate is represented with 500 initially random orientations. At a depth t /2 (center plane of the sheet) deformation is pure plane strain and the velocity gradient is given by Eq 17 . The predicted...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... materials are commonly used for bonding plastics ( Ref 10 , 11 ): Pure solvents provide the simplest, lowest-cost bond. These include acetone, methylene chloride, toluene, styrene, and methyl ethyl ketone. Doped solvents (also called solvent cements or bodied cements) contain solutions of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... is zero, tube spinning follows a purely volumetric rule, depending on the practical limits of deformation that the metal can stand without intermediate annealing. Machines used for tube spinning are usually the same as those used for power spinning of cones or other shapes. The few special...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... consistent in the presence of geometric nonlinearities from large strains and rotations. The three-part decomposition is written as: (Eq 8) f = f ♭ f ⋆ f ♯ = v ♭ r ⋆ f ♯ where f ♯ is the purely plastic part of f arising from slip; f...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003146
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article discusses the properties, primary and secondary production, product forms and applications of various grades of lead and lead-base alloys with the aid of several tables and illustrations. It lists the Unified Numbering System (UNS) designations for various pure lead grades...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003023
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... at the glass transitions of the components. This expression was first derived by Gordon ( Ref 16 ) for polymer blends and was based on the Gibbs-DiMarzio entropy theory ( Ref 17 ). Couchmen provided an alternative derivation, based on a purely thermodynamic exposition ( Ref 18 ). The extension of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... titanium to form γ′, a fcc compound Ni 3 (Al,Ti). Age-hardened nickel 301 (N03301) has high strength in addition to the corrosion resistance and electrical and magnetic properties of pure nickel. This material is often used in extrusion dies for plastics and magnetostrictive units under stress. Nickel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4E
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2016
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04e.a0006253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-169-6
... Abstract This article introduces the different types, distinctions, and grades of commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys. It describes three types of alloying elements: alpha stabilizers, beta stabilizers, and neutral additions. The article discusses the basic categories of titanium...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003136
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... in copper ( Ref 4 , 5 ). Lower-conductivity alloys, which are strengthened by alloy additions or precipitation hardening, exhibit improved resistance to stress relaxation, compared to pure copper. Figure 5 gives stress-relaxation data for a precipitation-hardened beryllium copper alloy (C17200...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... inhibit yielding. Under purely hydrostatic loading, no shear stresses exist, as is easily shown by examination of the three Mohr’s circles. The circles reduce to zero radius. Hydrostatic stress is sometimes referred to as spherical stress. (A stress state in which a hydrostatic stress exists is...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003225
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... another component. Distortion failures can be either plastic or elastic, and may or may not be accompanied by fracture. Two main types of distortion are size distortion, which refers to a change in volume (growth or shrinkage); and shape distortion (bending or warping), which refers to a change in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... directions. A ratio of these shears defines the deformation mode that may range from pure shear to simple shear. For pure shear, material distortions are equal in both shear directions; for simple shear, the plastic flow concentrates along one principal direction. Simple shear corresponds to the optimal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
..., the stress state is purely compressive (i.e., σ 2 = − Y , the material flow stress), and the hydrostatic stress is − Y /3. For larger absolute ratios of strain, the localized circumferential stress becomes more tensile, while the axial compressive stress becomes less compressive. Fig. 14...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2014
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04b.a0005936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-166-5
... tempering of steel components in order to optimize tribological properties. It focuses on the heat treatment of tempering and bearing steels and on volume changes that take place due to phase transformations. Plastic deformations that occur due to shrinking and phase transformation are also discussed. The...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... materials, including ferrous alloys, nonferrous alloys, ceramics, cermets and cemented carbides, engineering plastics, polymer-matrix composites, metal-matrix composites, ceramic-matrix and carbon-carbon composites, and reviews their general property characteristics and applications. It describes the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... metals containing impurities or solutes, or to more complicated alloys. Figure 8 shows how wear resistance and hardness correlate for various classes of materials. The linear plot shown for pure metals in Fig. 7 is repeated as the steep line in Fig. 8 . Another straight line describes brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001264
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... particles conglomerate and a two-phase alloy forms. With coatings containing more than 8% P, a matrix of nickel phosphite forms, whereas almost pure nickel is the predominant phase in deposits with lower phosphorus content. These changes cause a rapid increase in the hardness and wear resistance of the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... possible to their final shape. The article also provides useful information on drying methods, shrinkage, and defects as well as the removal of organic processing aids such as dispersants, binders, plasticizers, and lubricants. ceramic forming process drying green machining organics removal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0009007
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and strains For pure plastic bending, in which elastic deformation can be ignored, the maximum tensile fiber strain is: (Eq 17) ε 0 = ln R o R i where R o is the radius of curvature on the outer (tensile) surface, and R i is the radius of curvature on the...