1-20 of 35 Search Results for

pure divalent metal

Follow your search
Access your saved searches in your account

Would you like to receive an alert when new items match your search?
Close Modal
Sort by
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003588
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... presents crystal structures and thermal properties of pure metals and oxides in a tabular form. The free energy of reaction, which describes the oxidation process of a pure divalent metal, is presented. The article illustrates the Richardson-Jeffes diagram, which is used in the determination...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001089
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
..., and lutetium. This article classifies the rare earth metals based on their purity level, which are designated as research grades (>99.8% pure) and commercial grades (95% - 98% pure), and describes the preparation and purification, including solid-state electrolysis. It further discusses physical, mechanical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... selectivity for most anions of interest. By contrast, strong acid cation-exchange materials are now rarely used in IC because such materials exhibit excessively high affinities for divalent cations ( Ref 4 ). Although such materials were used in the early years of IC, the vast majority of all cation-exchange...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003581
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... standard state (pure metal), E o is the cell emf for: (Eq 7) Ag ( a = 1 ) + 1 2 Cl 2 ( f = 1 ) = AgCl ( a = 1 ) and the only variable in Eq 5 is the activity of AgCl. (It should be emphasized that in any thermodynamic treatment, only neutral components...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001090
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
.../cm 3 as specified by the customer, a metal billet resistivity of at least 5 ohm-cm average on the last third of the billet to freeze, and an N-type billet conductivity. The GeO 2 intended for chemical use, such as for use as a catalyst, is at least 5N pure spectrographically, at least 98% finer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006087
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the process descriptions, processing conditions, and processing variables of the most common chemical methods for metal powder production. These methods include oxide reduction, precipitation from solution, and thermal decomposition. Methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05b.a0006027
EISBN: 978-1-62708-172-6
... A phosphate layer, M 3 (PO 4 ) 2 · nH 2 O), is formed on a metal substrate by exposure to a phosphating bath. The letter M stands for a metal and represents divalent metallic cations of one or more metallic alloying elements in the phosphating bath that deposit onto the metal being phosphated; n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... Abstract This article presents the following characteristics of pure metals : structure, chemical composition, mass characteristics, thermal properties, electrical properties, chemical properties, magnetic properties, optical properties, fabrication characteristics, nuclear properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.a0001119
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
... ). Mechanical and physical properties of arsenic are summarized in the article “Properties of Pure Metals” in this Volume. Arsenic is transported in the environment mainly by water, and airborne arsenic is generally due to contributions from industrial contamination and may range from a few nanograms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001245
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in solution is present in the form of divalent positively charged ions (Ni ++ ). When current flows, the positive ions react with two electrons (2 e − ) and are converted to metallic nickel (Ni 0 ) at the cathode surface. The reverse occurs at the anode, where metallic nickel is dissolved to form divalent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... anodizing conversion coating metallurgy trace elements Pourbaix diagrams Aluminum, magnesium, titanium, and beryllium are classified as light metals , because whether used in their pure state or as alloys, their purpose is to reduce the weight of components and structures. The property...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003589
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
... system: a binary system at constant temperature and pressure, with net movement of atoms in only one direction. This is the basic situation for diffusion through an oxide growing on a pure metal. Fick's first law states that the rate of mass transfer is proportional to the concentration gradient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13b.a0003837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-183-2
... for selected sulfides as a function of temperature and sulfur partial pressure. Source: Ref 4 In an environment containing oxygen and sulfur, the following reactions need to be considered for a divalent metal, M: (Eq 1) M + 1 2 O 2 = MO (Eq 2) M + 1 2 S 2 = MS...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003701
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
..., and chlorine), dissolved ions (such as calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate), and suspended solids make water something other than pure H 2 O. For the corrosion reactions to take place between water and the metal surface, a potential difference must exist between different areas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1990
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02.9781627081627
EISBN: 978-1-62708-162-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 20
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1997
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v20.a0002460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-194-8
... , and Al 2 O 3 ). Thus their tolerance for “alloying” is much reduced compared to that of metals, although there are exceptions (some of them notable). “Alloying” that does take place can alter properties considerably. For example, substitution of divalent calcium ions (in amounts on the order of parts per...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 18
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 December 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v18.a0006395
EISBN: 978-1-62708-192-4
..., and the electrical circuit, are shown in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Electroplating of a metal (cathode) with nickel. At the anode, metallic nickel (Ni 0 ) is dissolved, forming divalent, positively charged nickel cations (Ni 2+ ). Upon current flow, the nickel cations migrate toward the cathode, where they react...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
..., hot-dip coating processes, electrogalvanizing, electroplating, metal cladding, organic coatings, zinc-rich coatings, porcelain enameling, thermal spraying, hardfacing, vapor-deposited coatings, surface modification, and surface hardening via heat treatment. alloy steel cadmium plating carbon...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... structure consists of a cubic close-packed oxygen lattice with divalent metal cations occupying one-eighth of the tetrahedral sites and trivalent metal cations occupying one-half of the octahedral sites ( Fig. 6 ). The unit cell contains 32 oxygen ions, 16 octahedral cations, and 8 tetrahedral cations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 12 September 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23A.a0006884
EISBN: 978-1-62708-392-8
... in the treatment solution. Accordingly, several studies on the transformation of calcium phosphates have been conducted, and various combinations of calcium phosphate and other constituents for HAp formation have been reported ( Ref 5 ). As the calcium ions in the HAp crystal can exchange other divalent cations...