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punching machines

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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 18 AISI O6 graphitic tool steel punch machined from centerless-ground bar stock that cracked after limited service. (a) Cracks (arrows) accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed an overaustenitized structure consisting of appreciable retained austenite More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 18 AISI O6 graphitic tool steel punch machined from centerless-ground bar stock that cracked after limited service. (a) Cracks (arrows) accentuated with magnetic particles. (b) Microstructural examination revealed an overaustenitized structure consisting of appreciable retained austenite More
Image
Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 23 A 160 kN (18 tonf) shear mounted at 45° angle for use with gang punching machine More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005178
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract This article discusses the most important factors required for cutoff methods. It explains the operations of machines used for the punching, shearing, notching, or coping of plates, bars, and structural sections. The article describes the effects of the blade angle and speed...
Image
Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 1 Schematics of the cold heading of an unsupported bar in a horizontal machine. (a) Head formed between punch and die. (b) Head formed in punch. (c) Head formed in die. (d) Head formed in punch and die More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 7
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 September 2015
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v07.a0006034
EISBN: 978-1-62708-175-7
... other tooling members before moving downward to the ejection position. At this point in the machine cycle, the feeder moves across the die, pushing the compacted part from the die area and covering the die cavity. The die and auxiliary lower punches move upward to their respective fill positions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001486
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... shears, iron workers, nibblers, and band saws. The article provides details on each of these. band saws fixturing guillotine machines iron workers knife rake mechanical cutting nibblers punching machines shearing machines shears straight-knife shearing welding OXYFUEL AND PLASMA...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 AISI S7 punch that had a low surface hardness after heat treatment and was given a second carburizing treatment, then rehardened. Cracking was observed after this retreatment (the cracks have been accentuated with magnetic particles). Coarse circumferential machining marks were present More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 22 AISI S7 punch that had a low surface hardness after heat treatment and was given a second carburizing treatment, then rehardened. Cracking was observed after this retreatment (the cracks have been accentuated with magnetic particles). Coarse circumferential machining marks were present More
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of ferrous or nonferrous metals. The article reviews the various types of forming processes such as blanking, piercing, fine-edge blanking, press bending, press forming, forming by multiple-slide machines, deep drawing, stretch forming, spinning, rubber-pad forming, three-roll forming, contour roll forming...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... and fixed transfer of blanks from the press station to the forming station of a multiple-slide machine After the blanking punch has retracted, the blank is held in the die cavity. The blank is then pushed out of the die cavity with a plunger that is moved forward by a cam fixed to the rear shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 2A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 November 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v02a.a0006526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-207-5
... to improve machinability, and the cut or punched slugs are then annealed before extrusion. When extruding alloys that will be heat treated, such as 6061, common practice is to extrude the slug in the O temper, solution treat the preform to the T4 temper, and then size or finish extrude. Two advantages...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... into the die by a punch that is actuated by the ram portion of a machine called a press brake. The process is most widely used for the forming of relatively long, narrow parts that are not adaptable to press forming and for applications in which production quantities are too small to warrant the tooling cost...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is the process of axial closed die rolling (rotary or orbital forging). In this machine, a punched blank, solid disk or prerolled ring produced on conventional ring rolling equipment is worked between inclined-rotating dies. Annular forgings of very accurate dimensions, and in a range of complex cross sections...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... In blanking, the die steels are built to the dimensional specifications of the blank, and any clearance required is machined on the punch. Clearances must be sufficient to avoid secondary shearing and close enough to prevent excessive burrs and deformation of blank edges. Pressure requirements for blanking...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
...Abstract Abstract Shearing is a process of cutting flat product with blades, rotary cutters, or with the aid of a blanking or punching die. This article commences with a description of some wear and material factors for tools used to shear flat product, principally sheet. Methods of wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... operations. Increased accuracy, speed, and stability are required for these operations. The turret punch press is a special machine in which the punches and dies are mounted in synchronized indexing tables. Several sets of punches and dies are mounted in the table, which can be manually or automatically...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... that are specifically designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005174
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... opening designed for large, bulky workpieces. Guillotine and multipurpose (combination) machines are widely used for welding preparation. The multipurpose machines feature interchangeable punches and dies for shearing, punching, and coping. Squaring shears, normally used for sheet and plate, can also...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 6 Punch made of AISI S7 tool steel that cracked during quenching. Temper color was observed on the crack walls. Cracking was promoted by and located by the very coarse machining marks. Magnetic particles have been used to emphasize the cracks. 0.5× More