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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... precision forging punching safety precautions thermal fatigue trimming dies vertical press wear resistance DIE MATERIALS used for hot forging include hot-work tool steels (AISI H series), some alloy steels such as the AISI 4300 or 4100 series, and a small number of proprietary, lower-alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... size, machining, descaling, cutting to length, and lubricating. It lists the advantages of the cold heading over machining. Materials selection criteria for dies and punches in cold heading are also described. The article provides examples that demonstrate tolerance capabilities and show dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... designed for cold extrusion with high rigidity, accurate alignment, and long working strokes are described. The article details the factors that are critical in cold extrusion: punch design, die design, and tool design. It summarizes the role of lubricants during extrusion of steel, such as soap lubricant...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... work (force × distance), expressed in inch-tons or joules (J), varies with the operation. Blanking and punching require the force to be exerted over only a short distance; drawing, forming, and other operations require force application over a longer distance. The major source the flywheel. The energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workpiece is displaced progressively by the forging punch, and the flow of metal is concentric, or parallel, to the outline of the punch. A punch is that portion of the forging die, comprising a single component or insert, that actually forges a cavity or hole. An exception to this definition exists in no...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die forging press or hammer. Using loose tools such as punches, containment rings, saddles, and bars, these methods have been successfully applied for years to produce forged rings and are extremely versatile. However, these methods are not economical in many cases. Manufacture of ring blanks using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... precisely for this kind of forging. Fig. 1 Upset forging process using split dies. 1, stationary die; 2, moving die; 3, upsetting punch. (a) Inserting bar in open dies. (b) Closed dies gripping bar. (c) Upset forging. (d) Upsetting punch withdrawn. (e) Ejection of the forging Hot upset forging...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... 13a ) includes a die block (1) with two intersecting channels (2, 3) and punch (4). Channels may have circular or square cross sections formed in split inserts pressed together by a container. Although the fabrication of circular channels is simpler, for cylindrical billets there are problems with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... transformation Even in the simplest PM part geometry—a solid circular cylinder—uniaxial die compaction results in a density distribution in the part if it is over 25 mm (1 in.) in length. Powders do not behave like liquids, and the greater the distance the powder particles are from the moving punch face...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is the ability to punch holes of various sizes and shapes in the “green,” or unfired, tape prior to sintering. The ability to punch out a variety of external shapes is another distinct advantage. Extrusion ( Ref 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ) can be a very effective and efficient method of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... withdraw the punch from a hole. Conventional forgings can usually be ejected by a simple knockout pin. This method is not practical for minimum-draft forgings, because pin pressure would be sufficient to damage the part. Ejection of minimum-draft forgings is nearly always accomplished through the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... plane-strain deformation, the method provides useful insight into the role of deformation process geometric conditions on the potential for fracture and its location in the workpiece. For example, double indentation by flat punches is a classical problem in slip-line field analysis, illustrated in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... widespread condition. Examples of a localized effect are rolling the corner of a punch or the initial yielding in a stress concentration prior to a fatigue failure. In these cases, the overall die dimensions do not change. Large-scale yielding occurs when a bolster plate is dished or the entire inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Rapidly increasing pressure with punch travel (decreasing thickness) during forging of pure aluminum (AA1050, 99.5 wt% Al). Note that allowing a small amount of material to be simultaneously extruded upward slightly reduces the forging pressure required. S 0 , diam of the extruded pin; d 0 , diam of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003978
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is presented in the article “Dies and Die Materials for Hot Forging” in this Volume. Fig. 1 Typical dies and punches used in open-die forging. (a) Die mounted with dovetail and key. (b) Flange-mounted die. (c) Swages for producing smooth round and hexagonal bars. (d) V-die. (e) Combination...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., dried soap or wax films (lubricant No. 8) are less effective than lubricants No. 5, 6, and 7. (b) Typical fillers are chalk, lithopone, white lead, talc, mica, zinc oxide, clay sulfur, and graphite. Blanking and piercing of aluminum alloy flat stock are ordinarily done in punch presses...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or more of the punches ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Examples of multiple-ram forgings. Displacement of metal can take place from vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal planes. Dimensions given in inches. Piercing holes in a forging at an angle to the normal direction of...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... form the impression by hot hubbing or by hubbing in several stages with intermediate anneals between stages. Table 1 gives typical materials used to make the punches and dies for coining small pieces such as the 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) diam emblem shown in the accompanying sketch. The choice of...