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punching

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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 2 Hole making by (a) punching, (b) punching and expansion, and (c) piercing. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 31 October 2011
Fig. 11 Center punching base material through a template More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 Hydraulic iron worker with 590 kN (66 tonf) punching capacity More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 23 A 160 kN (18 tonf) shear mounted at 45┬░ angle for use with gang punching machine More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 1 Shearing deformation during hole punching (a); initial indentation by the punch is followed by intense shearing between the punch and die and then fracture for final separation. These stages are manifest in the appearance and surface finish of the hole (b). Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 3 Hole punching parameters. (a) Allowable sheet thickness-to-punch diameter for hole punching as a function of material shear strength. (b) Minimum punch diameter (hole size) as a function of material thickness for three materials: A, 195 MPa (28 ksi) copper; B, 345 MPa (50 ksi) steel; C More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 4 Edge distortion and cambering caused by hole punching near an edge or in an off-center row. Source: Ref 1 More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 10 Galling on surface of punch after punching each of ten holes More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 13 Punching-force calculations More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 17 Effect of punch-face shear on punching force More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 18 Effect of clearance on force required for punching with sheared tooling. Force F varies with cutting length L ; L depends on clearance and on the type and hardness of material. More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 24 Distortion resulting from off-center punching More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 25 Key for interpreting plot of loads from punching tests More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 8 Parts with holes punched by P/M tool steels. Parts include: punching of fine slots in brass parts for clocks; punching of 3 mm (0.118 in.) holes in high-carbon steel (0.7% C) sheet (240 HB); punching of holes in chain links made of 0.55% carbon steel with a thickness of 2 mm (0.079 More
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Published: 01 January 1993
Fig. 11 Center punching base material through a template More
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Published: 01 January 2001
Fig. 5 Extensive cracking and punching shear damage to a bridge deck More
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Published: 30 September 2015
Fig. 16 Punch compression. P is total punch load, L is length, Y is deflection, A is area of punch, and E is Young's modulus. More
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Published: 01 January 2005
Fig. 6 Backward extrusion punch. A, nose angle; B, punch land; C, corner radius; D, relief angle More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 8 Punch force trajectories for samples 6 to 10 without process control. Punch force trajectories using constant binder force of 575 kN (65 tonf) More
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Published: 01 January 2006
Fig. 11 Punch force plots using process control and a reference punch force ( F p ) trajectory More