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punch-to-die clearance

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Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... piece of metal from the edge of the blank or strip ( Fig. 8 ). Fig. 8 Notched work illustrating the use of notching for freeing metal (a) before drawing and (b) before forming and for (c) removing excess metal before forming The terms clearance, die clearance, and punch-to-die clearance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003181
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... length of the run. Carbide tools are seldom required, even for extremely long runs. Clearance between punch and die must be controlled in blanking and piercing, in order to obtain a uniform shearing action. Clearance is usually expressed as the distance between mating surfaces of punch and die (per...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workpiece is displaced progressively by the forging punch, and the flow of metal is concentric, or parallel, to the outline of the punch. A punch is that portion of the forging die, comprising a single component or insert, that actually forges a cavity or hole. An exception to this definition exists in no...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... direction of the punch displacement. The billet is enclosed in a die and is forced to flow backward through the annular region between the punch and the die ( Fig. 1b ). Backward extrusion is differentiated from impact extrusion where typically a nonferrous material is extruded backward by a rapidly moving...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... been rotated to minimize side thrust. Generally, alignment between the upper and lower die impressions can be maintained with proper placement of the impression in the die, using clearance between the guides on the hammer or press to absorb side thrust. When these techniques will not work, side...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... complexity of the die shape also influences the selection of die steels for hot upset forging. Sharp corners and edges greatly increase stress concentration, and thin sections may be subjected to extreme loads and high thermal stresses. Internal punches and mandrels are subjected to high impact loads and...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... simple gripping and heading operations. The die motion can be used for swaging, bending, shearing, slitting, and trimming. In addition to upsetting, the heading tools are used for punching, internal displacement, extrusion, trimming, and bending. In the upset forging process, the working stock is...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die forging press or hammer. Using loose tools such as punches, containment rings, saddles, and bars, these methods have been successfully applied for years to produce forged rings and are extremely versatile. However, these methods are not economical in many cases. Manufacture of ring blanks using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... billet ejection from the die and with control of routes during multipass ECAE. For square channels, the punch should reach the top level of the second channel (dashed line in Fig. 13a ). After that the billet can be ejected or withdrawn from the die. To insert billets in the first channel during the...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... lamination Powder fluidity index (a) Advantageous Detrimental Powder die-wall coefficient of friction Detrimental Detrimental Length-to-diameter ratio Detrimental Detrimental Upper punch holddown pressure None Advantageous Green tensile strength Advantageous Advantageous (a...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003180
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... the straight-chromium (ferritic) grades. The amount of reduction obtainable varies greatly with the radius of the die and to a lesser extent with the radius of the punch nose. As the die radius decreases, the drawability decreases, as shown in Table 3 for austenitic stainless steel. Typically used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003991
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die and closed die. They are also classified in terms of the close-to-finish factor, or the amount of stock (cover) that must be removed from the forging by machining to satisfy the dimensional and detail requirements of the finished part ( Fig. 1 ). Finally, forgings are further classified in terms...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be integrated ( Ref 24 ). There are many examples in the postcasting finishing cell to use the robotic integration concept. For instance, the robot can be used in conjunction with the trim die to remove any flash perpendicular to the line of die draw or punch draw. The robot can be used to work with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... surfaces over a 250 mm (10 in.) span. In conducting this comparison, the local elastic deflection of the dies in forging copper must be considered. Therefore, the final thickness of the copper samples was corrected to counteract this local die deflection. Here again, materials other than copper (such as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003988
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... prevent oxidation during reheating and transfer to the forging die. The dies are typically made from hot-work steels such as AISI H13, H19, or H21. Lubrication of the die walls and punch is usually accomplished by spraying a water-graphite suspension into the cavity ( Ref 32 , Ref 33 , Ref 34 ). The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005417
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... integrity problem with the wire leads for thermocouples mounted within the billet. Moreover, the tool-workpiece interface conditions are never constant. To avoid these difficulties, the variation of temperature in the die and billet is recorded using thermocouples mounted away from the interface, and the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004039
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
..., thereby constraining or preventing a free flow of metal from web to flash. In closed-die forging of rib-to-web structural frames, the web is developed as a terminal element of the forging, and displacement in its thickness and plan dimensions proceeds concurrently with the displacement of metal to...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The permeability of sand is related to its coarseness, assuming a normal distribution. The coarser material will have the highest permeability and the most natural venting. Cut, punched, filed, or scratched vent passages can be made by removing sand during coremaking, after curing, and before...