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punch loading

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... speed available in conventional presses has little effect on extrusion pressure. Punch speed, however, affects the extrusion process in other ways: tool heating, lubricant deterioration, and dynamic loading. Hardness of the material is representative of its flow stress, and consequently softer materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... and finish punches as well as heading punches that are not highly loaded. Air-hardening grades A2 and D2 (59 to 61 HRC) or high-speed steels such as M2 or M4 (61 to 63 HRC) provide improved hardness and wear resistance while maintaining adequate toughness. For high-speed part formers where significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003992
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... equalized at that temperature. The furnace is then shut off, and the furnace and forgings should be allowed to cool to room temperature. Punches for the hot trimming of closed-die forgings are often made of 6G or 6F2 die block steel at 41.8 to 45.7 HRC, and the blades are made of a high-alloy tool steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003974
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... extrusion a slight nonparallelism of the beds, or a slight deviation of the slide motion from ideal perpendicularity, would result in excessive bending stresses on the punch and in nonuniform dimensions in extruded products. Under loaded conditions, the tilting of the ram and the ram and frame...
Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
... be integrated ( Ref 24 ). There are many examples in the postcasting finishing cell to use the robotic integration concept. For instance, the robot can be used in conjunction with the trim die to remove any flash perpendicular to the line of die draw or punch draw. The robot can be used to work with...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... modes of adhesive wear including scoring, scuffing, seizure, and galling, and describes the processes involved in classic laboratory-type and standardized tests for the evaluation of adhesive wear. It includes information on standardized galling tests, twist compression, slider-on-flat-surface, load...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... work (force × distance), expressed in inch-tons or joules (J), varies with the operation. Blanking and punching require the force to be exerted over only a short distance; drawing, forming, and other operations require force application over a longer distance. The major source the flywheel. The energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003241
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Type Indentation: standard operation Vickers Macroindentation or microindentation Rockwell Macroindentation Brinell Macroindentation Indentation: nonstandard operation Rockwell Low-load Vickers Low-load Brinell Calibrated pin system (static or dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004016
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...         + 2 τ L / a where L is a billet length. As L / a ≫1, even moderate friction τ may lead to the increase of punch pressure and load. Sometimes, there are problems in providing low-friction conditions, for example, hard and difficult to deform materials, long billets, and low processing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
.... Springs that return the dies to the open position often become weakened because of the softening effect of heat, or they become loaded with scale, which interferes with their action. Because of these potential problems, the use of recessed heading tools (or hollow punches), as described in the following...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die forging press or hammer. Using loose tools such as punches, containment rings, saddles, and bars, these methods have been successfully applied for years to produce forged rings and are extremely versatile. However, these methods are not economical in many cases. Manufacture of ring blanks using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Rapidly increasing pressure with punch travel (decreasing thickness) during forging of pure aluminum (AA1050, 99.5 wt% Al). Note that allowing a small amount of material to be simultaneously extruded upward slightly reduces the forging pressure required. S 0 , diam of the extruded pin; d 0 , diam of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 8
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2000
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v08.9781627081764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-176-4
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003987
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... form the impression by hot hubbing or by hubbing in several stages with intermediate anneals between stages. Table 1 gives typical materials used to make the punches and dies for coining small pieces such as the 13 mm ( 1 2 in.) diam emblem shown in the accompanying sketch. The choice of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is the ability to punch holes of various sizes and shapes in the “green,” or unfired, tape prior to sintering. The ability to punch out a variety of external shapes is another distinct advantage. Extrusion ( Ref 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ) can be a very effective and efficient method of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... widespread condition. Examples of a localized effect are rolling the corner of a punch or the initial yielding in a stress concentration prior to a fatigue failure. In these cases, the overall die dimensions do not change. Large-scale yielding occurs when a bolster plate is dished or the entire inside...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003237
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... bonding, and forming operations, such as shaft straightening and punch press operations. In general, AE inspection can be considered whenever the process stresses the material and produces permanent deformation. In structural testing, AE inspection is used on pressure vessels, storage tanks, pipelines...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... plane-strain deformation, the method provides useful insight into the role of deformation process geometric conditions on the potential for fracture and its location in the workpiece. For example, double indentation by flat punches is a classical problem in slip-line field analysis, illustrated in Fig...