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punch assembly

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... is typically flat with a bearing land of 3.25 mm ( 1 8 in.) and diameter that is very close to the bore of the die (0.025 to 0.125 mm, or 0.001 to 0.005 in., smaller) to prevent metal squirt between the punch and die. The closing-in of the die bore when the die is assembled in shrink rings...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... size, machining, descaling, cutting to length, and lubricating. It lists the advantages of the cold heading over machining. Materials selection criteria for dies and punches in cold heading are also described. The article provides examples that demonstrate tolerance capabilities and show dimensional...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004021
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... widespread condition. Examples of a localized effect are rolling the corner of a punch or the initial yielding in a stress concentration prior to a fatigue failure. In these cases, the overall die dimensions do not change. Large-scale yielding occurs when a bolster plate is dished or the entire inside...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003116
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... become burned before they penetrate the surface. Care should be taken to ensure that hardening from one operation does not interfere with subsequent machining. For example a tripod punch rather than a conventional center punch is preferred for hole location to prevent work hardening at the spot that will...
Book Chapter

Book: Casting
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 15
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2008
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v15.a0005244
EISBN: 978-1-62708-187-0
.... The permeability of sand is related to its coarseness, assuming a normal distribution. The coarser material will have the highest permeability and the most natural venting. Cut, punched, filed, or scratched vent passages can be made by removing sand during coremaking, after curing, and before...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004040
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... workpiece is displaced progressively by the forging punch, and the flow of metal is concentric, or parallel, to the outline of the punch. A punch is that portion of the forging die, comprising a single component or insert, that actually forges a cavity or hole. An exception to this definition exists in no...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... work (force × distance), expressed in inch-tons or joules (J), varies with the operation. Blanking and punching require the force to be exerted over only a short distance; drawing, forming, and other operations require force application over a longer distance. The major source the flywheel. The energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.9781627081863
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003980
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... precisely for this kind of forging. Fig. 1 Upset forging process using split dies. 1, stationary die; 2, moving die; 3, upsetting punch. (a) Inserting bar in open dies. (b) Closed dies gripping bar. (c) Upset forging. (d) Upsetting punch withdrawn. (e) Ejection of the forging Hot upset forging...
Book Chapter

By Robert Bolin
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003982
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... die forging press or hammer. Using loose tools such as punches, containment rings, saddles, and bars, these methods have been successfully applied for years to produce forged rings and are extremely versatile. However, these methods are not economical in many cases. Manufacture of ring blanks using...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003997
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... withdraw the punch from a hole. Conventional forgings can usually be ejected by a simple knockout pin. This method is not practical for minimum-draft forgings, because pin pressure would be sufficient to damage the part. Ejection of minimum-draft forgings is nearly always accomplished through the use of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 2010
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22b.9781627081979
EISBN: 978-1-62708-197-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003972
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... Rapidly increasing pressure with punch travel (decreasing thickness) during forging of pure aluminum (AA1050, 99.5 wt% Al). Note that allowing a small amount of material to be simultaneously extruded upward slightly reduces the forging pressure required. S 0 , diam of the extruded pin; d 0 , diam of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003053
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... is the ability to punch holes of various sizes and shapes in the “green,” or unfired, tape prior to sintering. The ability to punch out a variety of external shapes is another distinct advantage. Extrusion ( Ref 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 ) can be a very effective and efficient method of...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003183
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... or more of the punches ( Fig. 9 ). Fig. 9 Examples of multiple-ram forgings. Displacement of metal can take place from vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal planes. Dimensions given in inches. Piercing holes in a forging at an angle to the normal direction of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 22A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2009
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v22a.a0005461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-196-2
... plane-strain deformation, the method provides useful insight into the role of deformation process geometric conditions on the potential for fracture and its location in the workpiece. For example, double indentation by flat punches is a classical problem in slip-line field analysis, illustrated in Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0003975
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... punch to form the inside configuration. All of these pieces must fit together—the wraps and the bottom punch, which fits into the wraps to make a bottom die, and top punch, which then fits into the bottom assembly to make a complete set of forging dies ( Fig. 18 ). For the forging operation, the dies...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... characteristic of die forgings. For the most stringent structural applications, the greatest hazards are those posed by dynamic stresses and by combinations of static stresses from assembly interferences or misfits with dynamic applied stresses and corrosive environments. To avoid premature failure from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004008
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
... discrete hollow cuplike components, such as artillery shells, shock absorber sleeves, beverage cans, and gas cylinders. Tube drawing with a moving mandrel, often called ironing, is carried out by using several drawing dies located in tandem ( Fig. 12 ). Fig. 12 Multipass ironing with tapered punch...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2005
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14a.a0004024
EISBN: 978-1-62708-185-6
...), depending on the die alloy, and pressed for a few seconds. (7) Can is broken up and the part is separated from the ceramic powder. RCC has been used to manufacture H13 punches for backward extrusion of automotive pistons. The RCC process starts with a wax pattern like the investment casting, except in...