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pulsed-potential plating

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... plating and pulsed-potential plating are also discussed. electrodeposition multiple-layer alloy plating multiple-layer alloys process parameters pulsed-current plating pulsed-potential plating MULTIPLE-LAYER ALLOY PLATING is an emerging technology for engineering desirable properties into...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... , 8 , 9 , 10 , and 11 : Complexing agents are needed to bring the deposition potentials of the alloying metals (e.g., nickel and iron) closer together. The plating solution should contain a greater proportion of chromium salts, relative to the alloy addition, in order to obtain significant...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... manganese content, and deposit properties can be further modified using pulse plating during deposition of the alloys ( Ref 22 ). Nickel is a naturally occurring constituent of our day-to-day environment. The soil worldwide contains 5 to 500 ppm Ni, with an average of 100 ppm. Food is grown and consumed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... nonferrous metals preparation. Variations in the thickness of hard chromium plate depend primarily on the potential field distribution. Potential field is controlled by the placement of anodes, shields, thieves, and other parts, as well as the relative position of the sides and surface of the tank...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... process because the standard electrode potentials of tin and lead differ by only 10 mV. Tin-lead alloys have been deposited by electrolytes such as sulfamates, fluosilicates, pyrophosphates, chlorides, and fluoborates. Of these, fluoborate is available commercially and is generally used to plate tin-lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... mechanical properties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys. The techniques are physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering, ion plating, electroplating, electroless plating, and displacement plating. The article describes five categories of laser surface modification, namely, laser surface...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the presses that are mechanically or hydraulically powered and used for producing sheet, strip, and plate from sheet metal. It also presents the JIC standards for presses, compares the presses based on power source, details the selection criteria and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... oxidation resistance through the use of polishing, buffing, and wire brushing operations. The article also covers a wide range of surface modification and coating processes, including ion implantation, diffusion, chemical and physical vapor deposition, plating, anodizing, and chemical conversion coatings as...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... are of three types: potentiometric, voltammetric (amperometric), and coulometric. Potentiometry is the most commonly used of the electrochemical techniques and involves the measurement of a potential (voltage) generated by a cell under essentially equilibrium conditions. Coulometry involves the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of inspection and results, no matter where they are performed. It also establishes potential consistency among different inspectors, when a procedure is correctly implemented. The inspection or reference standards for pulse-echo testing include parts containing natural flaws, parts containing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... interaction (mixing) between the piezoelectrically detected object-beam signal and the simulated reference-beam signal occurs in the electronic domain. A pulser circuit (consisting of a continuous-wave oscillator and a pulse gate that is triggered by an electronic clock) and a power amplifier feed a single...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
... methods of steel. These methods include direct-current plasma nitriding, pulsed-current plasma nitriding, and active-screen plasma nitriding. The article reviews cold-walled and hot-walled furnaces used for plasma nitriding. It provides information on the importance of controlling three process parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 4A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2013
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v04a.a0005813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-165-8
.... Subsequently, another heating phase under vacuum takes place. The actual carburizing and diffusion starts after all parts have reached the specified carburizing temperature. Carburizing takes place by applying a routine of alternating pulses and diffusion steps. Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the low...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
.... Microfabrication of sensors, maskless jet systems, miniature computer components, and a host of newer devices rely on the properties of many electrodeposited alloys and the precision of electroforming to produce such items. Bath chemistries, deposition parameters (in some cases requiring pulse plating control...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006648
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... For example, in some mass spectrometers, ions are accelerated in the extraction region by a high potential (e.g., 6 to 8 kV for sector field mass spectrometry) and are focused and steered by a series of plates or cylinders at different potentials. Ions of the constituent elements of the sample are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... performance of metal shaping and finishing operations. Surface finish during high-rate anodic dissolution depends on the mass transport conditions at the anode. At potentials below the limiting current range, rough surfaces are obtained as a result of crystallographic etching and grain boundary attack. The...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... chamber, which typically consists of a stack of plates with center holes, except for the back plate. Ions enter the stack from the side, and a high-voltage pulse is applied to the back plate, causing the ions to accelerate through the stack of plates and into the field-free drift region. The potential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article describes the basic features of electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) and discusses their existing and some potential uses within the field of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (UNDE). It provides sufficient basic and practical information to make an informed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that other defects can also have critical effect on the host structures. Table 1 Effect of defects in fiber-reinforced composite materials Defect Potential effect on structural performance Delamination Catastrophic failure due to loss of interlaminar shear strength. Typical acceptance...