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pulsed-current plating equipment

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... that the cost of a pulsed-current rectifier is greater than that of a conventional dc unit. Also, optimization of results requires planning and experimentation, and plating equipment may need to be redesigned or upgraded. The theory behind pulse plating is simple ( Ref 1 , 2 ). The cathode film is kept...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005643
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... mm (0.04 in.) and upward Sheet metal; root pass in pipe welding; positional welding Pulsed arc Direct current; electrode positive; 50–100 Hz pulse superposed on low background current Pulse detaches drop at electrode tip and permits free-flight transfer at low current Argon, argon-O 2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... welded seams, and probe alignment with the weld seam is crucial. Pulsed Eddy Current Because the skin effect makes through-wall inspection difficult in ferromagnetic materials, pulsed eddy-current (PEC) methods are used. Pulsed eddy-current testing involves the same type of equipment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... schemes for plating coherent, nanometer-scale Ni/Cu multiple-layer alloys from sulfamate electrolytes Table 2 Two representative triple-current-pulsing schemes for plating coherent, nanometer-scale Ni/Cu multiple-layer alloys from sulfamate electrolytes Characteristic triple-pulse condition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Maxwell’s equations ( Ref 29 ) that a current density, J , is induced in the metal surface. Following are links and comments related to several websites for organizations that provide EMATs and related equipment and components. Because several companies provide equipment and services that go well...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... in Fig. 5 , are used to calibrate ultrasonic equipment for pulse-echo thickness measurement. These blocks are carefully ground from material similar to that being inspected, and the exact thickness (within acceptable tolerance) at various positions is marked on the block. Either type of block can also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Equipment Principles of Pulse-Echo Methods Presentation of Pulse-Echo Data Applications Interpretation of Pulse-Echo Data Angle-Beam Techniques A-Scan Display System Setup Signal Display Displays Pitch-Catch Testing Continuous-Beam Testing Lamb (Plate or Guided) Wave...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001337
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... welding. The more-common welding processes that use constant-current and constant-voltage power sources are listed in a table. The article describes the open-circuit voltage characteristics and power source control methods. The control methods employ either pulse width modulation (PWM) or frequency...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... and materials can be joined using upset welding in either a single-pulse or continuous mode. Wire, bar, strip, and tubing can be joined end to end with a single pulse of welding current. Seams on pipe or tubing can be joined using continuous upset welding by feeding a coiled strip into a set of forming rolls...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005582
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... Fig. 3 Typical equipment for plasma arc welding. dc, direct current Fig. 1 Plasma arc welding process, showing constriction of the arc by a copper nozzle and a keyhole through the plate Abstract Abstract Plasma arc welding (PAW) can be defined as a gas-shielded arc welding process...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., such as sound waves. The two methods currently available for practical nondestructive inspection are optical holography, using visible light waves, and acoustical holography, using ultrasonic waves. Optical Holography Optical holographic interferometry has been successfully used both in research...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., such as sound waves. The two methods currently available for practical nondestructive inspection are optical holography, using visible light waves, and acoustical holography, using ultrasonic waves. Optical holographic interferometry has been successfully used both in research and testing applications...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... Fig. 3 Typical equipment for plasma arc welding Fig. 2 Tolerance to variation in welding current and plasma gas flow rate in pulsed and continuous current keyhole welding; boundaries show the welding parameter combinations at which specific defects are likely to occur. Welding parameters...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 1A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 August 2017
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v01a.a0006336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-179-5
..., hardness, and other metallurgical factors (primarily electromagnetic inspection) Gaging according to size, shape, plating thickness, or insulation thickness (eddy-current or electromagnetic inspection) Eddy-current measurement equipment can vary significantly depending on the industrial...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003209
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... of welding current. Seams on pipe or tubing can be joined using continuous upset welding by feeding a coiled strip into a set of forming rolls, resistance heating the edges with wheel electrodes, and applying a force to upset the edges together. Equipment for single-pulse upset welding is relatively...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 13A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2003
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v13a.a0003657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-182-5
...) techniques such as eddy-current and ultrasonic methods. Positive aspects of IR pulse thermography include: Images of a relatively large area can be produced, which makes it a fast inspection technique ( Ref 1 ). It is partially insensitive to curved surfaces ( Ref 2 ). Images are easy...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003194
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...  ND-Glass—1–2 pulses/s  YAG—1–10,000 pulses/s  CO 2 —1–7000 pulses/s Peak output power (calculated):  Ruby—1500–19,000 watts  Nd-Glass—1000–75,000 watts  YAG—5000–17,000 watts pulsed—300 watts CW  CO 2 —1000 watts CW Accelerating voltage: 50,000–150,000 Beam current: 0–1000 microamp Pulse width: 4...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 14B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2006
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v14b.a0005127
EISBN: 978-1-62708-186-3
... current vaporizing a small volume of liquid in a spark gap between two electrodes. The current pulse is produced using essentially the same equipment (capacitor banks) that produces the currents in electromagnetic forming. However, the liquid-based shock wave that results is very similar to what would...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... in Fluoborate Baths Wastewater Control and Treatment Copper Plating Equipment Characteristics of Copper Plate Copper in Multiplate Systems Cost Agitation Filtration Carbonate Buildup Current Interruption Cycles Proprietary Additives The development and refinement...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
... example of a pulse waveform. In this example, the current is raised to a high peak level exceeding the spray transition current for a short period of time (typically a few milliseconds), then dropped to a low background level for the rest of the cycle. The peak pulse causes a drop of metal to be detached...