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pulsed-current plating

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001262
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... Abstract Pulsed-current plating can be defined simply as metal deposition by pulsed electrolysis, which involves using interrupted direct current to electroplate parts. This article discusses the advantages and limitations of pulsed-current plating and provides information on the process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001260
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... plating and pulsed-potential plating are also discussed. electrodeposition multiple-layer alloy plating multiple-layer alloys process parameters pulsed-current plating pulsed-potential plating MULTIPLE-LAYER ALLOY PLATING is an emerging technology for engineering desirable properties into...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001259
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... of chromium-base alloys Type of bath Aqueous Acid Alkaline Nonaqueous Organic Molten salt Applied current None (electroless) Conventional direct current Pulsed direct current Periodic reversed direct current High-speed direct current High-speed pulsed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001242
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... used with pulsed-current or periodic-reverse plating. The cyanide copper plating baths listed in Table 1 are characterized by low-copper metal and high free-cyanide contents. This type of chemistry helps to clean the surface of parts during the plating operation. This results because of the...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001250
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... infrequent intervals. The electrical equipment is the same as that used in other plating operations. A rectifier for converting alternating current to direct current or a pulse-plating rectifier, which allows more precise control of electrical parameters, can be used. Factors such as operating temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001258
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... the solution is usually made by metered additions of cobalt sulfamate. It can, however, be achieved by dividing the anodic current between a nickel anode and a cobalt anode, so that the percentage of total current passing to the cobalt is the same as the percentage of cobalt required in the alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... principal variables that must be controlled for satisfactory hard chromium plating are the anodes, the current density, and the solution temperature. Faulty operation of a chromium-plating solution can result in slow plating speed or deposits with undesirable characteristics. The problems...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003215
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... composition, the principal variables that must be controlled for satisfactory hard chromium plating are (a) anodes, (b) current density, and (c) bath temperature. Sometimes referred to as the ordinary or conventional bath, the oldest chromium plating bath used for decorative plating...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003177
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... Abstract This article describes the presses that are mechanically or hydraulically powered and used for producing sheet, strip, and plate from sheet metal. It also presents the JIC standards for presses, compares the presses based on power source, details the selection criteria and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... system. Adapted from Ref 2 Fig. 10 Block diagram for a C-scan system. Adapted from Ref 2 Circuits that supply current for all functions of the instrument constitute the power supply, which usually is energized by conventional 115 or 230 V alternating current. There are...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... perfect implantation. Industrial implanters are typically designed to accelerate the ions to energies of between 50 and 200 keV, resulting in implant layer thicknesses of up to several hundred nanometers. High ion current densities, 30 to 40 μA/cm −2 , reduce the time necessary to reach a required dose...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... applications include resistance and laser welding. Both are capable of reliably creating small-scale joints with limited heat effects on the surrounding environment, making them ideal for medical device applications. To better understand these processes, the current section details the fundamental principles...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., which can run on 110-volt alternating current or on batteries Electronic clock, or timing circuit, to trigger pulser and display circuits Pulser circuit, or rate generator, to control frequency, amplitude, and pulse-repetition rate of the voltage pulses that excite the search unit Receiver...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
...), and fixturing are all very critical to control for optimal production of these advanced products. Such developments as composition-modulated alloys, nanophase composites, nonaqueous plating baths, and advanced pulsed current controls are expected to open the field of electroforming to more complex...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... current dissolution, hence the uniformity of metal dissolution and the shape profiles during throughmask EMM. A new finishing method has been developed using an electrochemical finishing machine ( Ref 8 ). This method enables the operator to set the timing of a switchover to pulses having a high current...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... reviews the determination of area-amplitude and distance-amplitude curves of a straight-beam pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system. The article discusses the three principal conventional manual ultrasonic sizing techniques: 6 dB drop technique, maximum-amplitude technique, and 20 dB drop technique. It...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
..., such as sound waves. The two methods currently available for practical nondestructive inspection are optical holography, using visible light waves, and acoustical holography, using ultrasonic waves. Optical holographic interferometry has been successfully used both in research and testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... nonmagnetic metals, by means of the Lorentz magnetic force ( Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ), a pulse of current through one or several wires (a coil) in proximity to a metal surface and within a magnetic field generates a pulse of elastic (ultrasonic) energy that mirrors the current pulse (the...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006474
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... slope that can be properly contoured. This limit depends partly on the half-beam angle, φ, of the transducer, which in currently available systems is approximately 7°. A conservative rule for estimating the maximum slope angle that will be properly contoured is: (Eq 1) θ max ≈ φ / 2 n...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006477
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... an LOP defect in a friction stir weld ( Ref 14 ). Other eddy-current techniques, such as pulsed eddy-current and specialized eddy-current ensors, have been used to demonstrate flaw detection and electrical conductivity mapping, which can be correlated with hardness change on a friction stir weld...