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pulsed solid-state laser

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... used for thin film deposition due to its stability and high peak power. In addition to excimer lasers, other gas laser systems (CO 2 ) and solid state laser systems (Nd:YAG) have been used to deposit thin films. The output wavelengths of these lasers can vary from 0.2 to 10 μm. Film quality as a...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... processing of an array of previously acquired laser-ultrasonic signals. Repetition rate on the same order as piezoelectric conventional ultrasonics, which ranges up to several kHz and is readily obtained by electronic pulse generators, is possible, but, in the present state of laser technology and in view...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006464
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... respect as optomechanical scanning mechanisms were replaced by solid-state focal plane array detectors, and liquid nitrogen was replaced by Stirling cooling engines. The introduction of IR cameras based on uncooled focal plane arrays in the 1990s, although less sensitive than their cooled counterparts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... that are used to define the presence, location, and characteristics of flaws or other discontinuities. The degree of reflection/transmission depends largely on the physical state of the materials forming the interface and to a lesser extent on the specific physical properties of the material. For...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 23
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2012
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v23.a0005680
EISBN: 978-1-62708-198-6
... induce solid-state diffusion, in the absence of melting. Heat generated during laser welding causes peak temperatures to typically surpass the liquidus and result in the occurrence of fusion bonding. However, during RMW, the process parameters can be controlled to attain either bonding mechanism...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006651
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
.... Novel ionization techniques are continually being developed, with ambient ionization greatly advancing the capabilities of solid analysis by MS. Ambient ionization techniques ionize analyte material outside of the mass spectrometer mostly through thermal desorption, laser desorption, and impact by...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... pulse controller in this type of power supply sets a time basis and controls the “on” and “off” states of the power controller. The power controller delivers the pulse to the gap with the required power. Some EDM machines are equipped with power supplies that combine the relaxation and independent power...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... solid with a laser pulse. This interest peaked, at least in terms of the number of papers published, in the early 1980s ( Ref 8 ). The fundamental mechanisms are well understood; the physical principle is use of rapid thermal expansion or ablation of a small volume of material and this results in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the sample. Field of view: 19 × 14 mm Figure 15 shows an optical picture of an aluminum oxide panel with laser-machined holes. This sample is an electronics-grade material that is 99.5% pure and has very low porosity. When the ceramic powder first is compressed in the green state...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
...-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) solid-state type or the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas type. These lasers may have pulsed or continuous output power. Both types, whether pulsed or continuous wave, can be used for transformation surface hardening. The primary output beam from the laser rarely is used in...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006461
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... have been successfully used in seismology to characterize the morphology of the Earth ( Ref 4 ). There are two main research areas that have numerous applications of ultrasonic Rayleigh waves: nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and materials characterization in solid-state physics. These applications use...
Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 November 1995
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.emde.a0003055
EISBN: 978-1-62708-200-6
... grinding and provides information on tooling, wheel selection, work material, and operational factors. It also discusses precision slicing and slotting, lapping, honing, and polishing as well as abrasive waterjet, electrical discharge, laser, and ultrasonic machining. abrasive machining ceramics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 5
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1994
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v05.a0001311
EISBN: 978-1-62708-170-2
... well as sprayed and sol-gel coatings and laser and electron-beam treatments. anodizing buffing chemical conversion coatings chemical vapor deposition cleaning diffusion treatment electron beam treatment finishing grease removal ion implantation laser treatment oxidation resistance...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... material. If the heating laser pulse duration is short (10 to 100 ns), then the expansion will be in the frequency of ultrasound (1 to 10 MHz). The important feature is that the ultrasound will propagate perpendicular to the surface, independent of the laser angle of incidence. This allows generation of...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006640
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... industrial processes. Another general trend for all OES techniques is that the photomultiplier tubes are gradually being replaced by solid-state detectors of the charge-coupled- and charge-injection-type devices. With these detectors, development of compact miniature spectrometers for special...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006641
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... their natural state without any sample pretreatment, such as gold coating or charge neutralization. Both compositional analysis and trace-element determination are performed using laser ablation ICP-MS ( Ref 27 ). Unlike glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... mechanism exists for stressing or otherwise exciting the object. Pulsed-laser techniques allow the inspection of test objects in unstable or hostile environments. It has an inherent sensitivity to the displacement or deformation of at least one-half an optical wavelength, or about 125 nm (1250 Å...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 24
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 June 2020
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v24.9781627082907
EISBN: 978-1-62708-290-7
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006649
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... counter and laser diffraction are two effective methods for particle size analysis of fine powders ( Ref 3 ). The former is called a stream scanning method, where particle volumes are measured through the changes in voltage pulse when particles are suspended in an electrolyte solution and pass through an...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0006679
EISBN: 978-1-62708-213-6
... determination of the weight of metal deposited or released at the cathode by measuring the electrical charge (electrical current over a determined time frame) produced by an electrochemical cell. The basic foundation of these methods is Faraday’s law(s) of electrolysis, which state that the amount of any...