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pulse-echo method

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006469
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... Abstract This article considers the two primary methods used for ultrasonic inspection: pulse-echo and the transmission methods. Pulse-echo inspection can be accomplished with longitudinal, shear, surface (Rayleigh), or Lamb (plate) waves using a diverse range of transducers. The article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 10
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1986
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v10.a0001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-178-8
... of nuclear magnetic resonance with emphasis on nuclei properties, the basic equation of nuclear magnetic resonance, the classical theory of nuclear magnetization, line broadening, and measurement sensitivity. It describes the pulse-echo method for observing NMR. The article provides useful information...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006470
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., surface waves, and lamb waves. The article reviews the major variables in ultrasonic inspection, including frequency, acoustic impedance, angle of incidence, and beam intensity. It discusses the attenuation of ultrasonic beams and provides information on the pulse-echo and transmission methods...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003236
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
... account of ultrasonic flaw detectors, including ultrasonic transducers and types of search units and couplants. The article describes pulse-echo and transmission inspection methods and data interpretation. The general characteristics of ultrasonic waves and the factors influencing ultrasonic inspection...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 4 Schematic showing position of probe relative to flaw inside of bar and resulting wave display obtained for two methods of ultrasonic flaw detection. (a) Normal-beam method. (b) Angle-beam method. Wave display nomenclature: T, transmit pulse; S, surface reflection echo; F 1 , flaw echo More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
.... It reviews the determination of area-amplitude and distance-amplitude curves of a straight-beam pulse-echo ultrasonic inspection system. The article discusses the three principal conventional manual ultrasonic sizing techniques: 6 dB drop technique, maximum-amplitude technique, and 20 dB drop technique...
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 36 Relative sensitivity of instruments used to inspect bonded laminates of increasing total thicknesses. A, Sondicator, contact method; B, Shurtronics harmonic bond tester; C, Fokker bond tester; D, NDT-210 bond tester; E, Sondicator, through-transmission method; F, ultrasonic pulse echo More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 18 Schematic showing pulse-echo compression-wave transducer scanning for 6 dB drop method for sizing. Source: Ref 7 More
Image
Published: 01 August 2018
Fig. 50 Method of determining correct oil level in an automobile differential housing by use of an ultrasonic pulse-echo system. See text for discussion. More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... with their associated acoustic impedances. This type of search unit projects a beam of ultrasonic vibrations perpendicular to the entry surface. It can be used for either the reflection (pulse-echo) method or the through-transmission method. Pulse-echo inspection can be performed with either one or two search units...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006466
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... of sound because of the geometry of the lens. For example, at 1 GHz, the penetration limit is approximately 1 μm (40 μin.). The C-mode scanning acoustic microscope is designed for moderate penetration into a sample, and transmission-mode imaging sometimes is employed. This instrument uses a pulse-echo...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
..., liquid couplant must be applied to both sides of the assembly. Immersion Method For this method, the assembly must be immersed in a tank of water, or water squirters must be used to act as a couplant for the ultrasonic beam. There are three fundamental techniques: pulse echo ( Fig. 20c ), through...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Desk Editions
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1998
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.mhde2.a0003240
EISBN: 978-1-62708-199-3
.... (b) Scanning and recording portions of system The signal is pulsed so that time gating can be used to reject undesired surface echoes. The pulse length may be set to any desired value from a few periods of the wave frequency to an upper limit of 50% of the time between successive pulses. Long...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006472
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the arrival time of the signals and not, as with pulse echo, on measuring the signal amplitudes. Time-of-flight diffraction is usually performed using longitudinal waves as the primary detection method. Ultrasonic sensors are placed on each side of the weld. One sensor transmits the ultrasonic energy...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 21
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2001
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v21.a0003436
EISBN: 978-1-62708-195-5
...-transmission (TT) ultrasonics and pulse-echo (PE) ultrasonics. The TT method uses two transducers, one on each side of the part, to measure the acoustic attenuation through the structure. One transducer is the transmitter and is electronically pulsed to produce an ultrasonic signal, and the other transducer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006478
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
...-transmission (TT) ultrasonics and pulse-echo (PE) ultrasonics. The TT method uses two transducers, one on each side of the part, to measure the acoustic attenuation through the structure. One transducer is the transmitter and is electronically pulsed to produce an ultrasonic signal, and the other transducer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.9781627081900
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 17
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 August 2018
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v17.a0006449
EISBN: 978-1-62708-190-0
... the material. The use of lower alternating current frequencies can help to drive eddy currents deeper into the inspected material for through-wall inspection of magnetic ferrous materials, and other methods, such as pulsed EC testing, can be used to glean the necessary information for the tube or pipe being...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 31 October 2011
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06a.a0005628
EISBN: 978-1-62708-174-0
..., quasi-static mechanical tests, dynamic mechanical tests, and metallographic examination, are reviewed. The article reviews weld-quality monitoring using various process signals and provides a discussion on the on-line and off-line nondestructive evaluation methods of spot weld quality. dynamic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 6
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v06.a0001473
EISBN: 978-1-62708-173-3
... applications, such as in the nuclear industry, and because it requires the highest level of skill. Like sonar, the method relies on propagating pulses of sound through a medium and then picking up reflected echoes. However, because the sound is of an ultrasonic frequency, the pulses are propagated along...